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Horticulture

HORTICULTURE

HORTICULTURE. Horticulture, literally garden culture, is a part of crop agriculture that also includes agronomy and forestry. By tradition, horticulture deals with garden crops such as fruits, nuts, vegetables, culinary herbs and spices, beverage crops, and medicinals, as well as ornamental plants. Agronomy is involved with grains, pasture grasses and forages, oilseeds, fiber crops, and industrial crops such as sugarcane, while forestry is involved with trees grown for timber and fiber as well as the incidental wildlife. The edible horticultural crops are used entirely as human food and are often utilized in the living state and thus highly perishable. In contrast, edible agronomic crops are often utilized in the nonliving state, are highly processed, are often used for animal feed, and usually contain a high percentage of dry matter. The precise distinction between horticultural and agronomic crops is traditional. In general, horticultural crops are intensively cultivated and warrant a large input of capital, labor, and technology per unit area of land, but in modern agriculture, horticultural crops may be extensively grown while many agronomic crops are now intensively cultivated. Many crops are claimed by more than one discipline. Horticulture is practiced in large agricultural operations, in small farm enterprises, and in home gardens.

Horticultural Arts

Horticulture is associated with a number of intensive practices that collectively make up the horticultural arts. These include various propagation techniques incorporating special plant structures such as bulbs, corms, or runners; the use of layers or cuttings; budding and grafting; and micropropagation involving tissue culture. Cultural practices include soil preparation, direct planting or transplanting; fertilization; weed, disease, and pest control; training and pruning; the use of controlled environments such as greenhouses or plastic tunnels; applications of chemical growth regulators; various harvest and handling methods; and various postharvest treatments to extend shelf life. Other practices associated with horticulture are breeding and genetic techniques for crop improvement, marketing methods, and food processing. Ornamental horticulture, not considered here, includes added practices associated with landscape architecture and the floral arts. While horticulture is an ancient art with many of its practices empirically derived, present-day horticultural arts are intimately associated with science, so that modern horticultural science is one of the most advanced parts of agriculture. Recently some horticultural growers have attempted to reduce or even eliminate reliance on inorganic fertilizers and pesticides through the incorporation of ecologically based practices (integrated crop management).

Horticultural Food Crops

Horticultural food crops include an enormous array of species that are grouped in various ways.

Fruits. Fruits of woody perennial plants have long been prized for sources of refreshment, for their delightful flavors and aromas, and as nourishing foods. Fruit crops can be defined as temperate, subtropical, and tropical depending on their temperature requirements. Temperate fruits are deciduous (drop their leaves in the cold period) and undergo dormancy requiring a certain amount of low temperatures (chilling period) before growth is resumed in the spring. Subtropical fruits require a very short chilling period. Tropical fruits are usually evergreen and are extremely cold-sensitive. Within these groupings fruit crops are usually grouped by taxonomic affinity. The temperate fruits include the pome fruits (apple, pear, quince, medlar), stone fruits (apricot, cherry, peach and its smooth-skin variant the nectarine, and plum), vine fruits (grape and kiwifruit), and small or bush fruits (strawberry; blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry; brambles such as blackberry, raspberry, and various hybrids; currants and gooseberries). The subtropical fruits include citrus (citron, grapefruit, the tropical pomelo, sweet orange, lemon, lime, mandarins, and various hybrids such as the tangor or tangelo); and fruits associated with Mediterranean climates (avocado, cactus pear, carob, fig, loquat, persimmon, pomegranate). There are hundreds of tropical fruits, of which the most important are banana and plantain, mango, papaya, and pineapple, but there are hundreds of others with regional interest, including acerola, akee, carambola, cherimoya, durian, guava, litchi, mangosteen, passion fruit, rambutan, sapodilla, and soursop.

Nuts. The important tree nuts that enter into international trade include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, chestnuts, hazelnuts, macadamias, pistachios, pecans and hickories, and walnuts.

Beverage crops. Beverage crops include the subtropical cropscoffee, tea, and matéand the tropical cacao used for cocoa and the confection chocolate.

Vegetables. Vegetables are typically herbaceous (softstemmed) plants in which various parts are used as food, including roots, tubers, leaves, fruit, or seed. There are various groupings based on the part consumed and taxonomic affinity. Vegetables include the root crops (beet, carrot, cassava, celeriac, dasheen, horseradish, parsnip, potato, salsify, turnip, radish, rutabaga, and sweet potato, as well as some little-known Andean tubers such as oca, mashua or anu, and ulluco, and root crops such as arracacha, maca, and yacon); bulb or corm crops including the pungent alliums (chive, garlic, leek, onion, shallots, and chive); salad or leafy crops (arugula or rocket, celery, chicory, cress, endive, lettuce, parsley); cole crops or crucifers (cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, Chinese cabbage, and various Asian types such as bok choy); potherbs or greens (chard, collards, dandelion, celeriac, kale, mustard, orach, spinach, New Zealand spinach); solanaceous fruits (eggplant, sweet and hot peppers, tomato and husk tomato), cucurbits, also known as melon or vine crops (chayote, cucumber, muskmelon, pumpkin, squash, watermelon); legumes or pulse crops in which the seed is consumed (adzuki bean, broad bean, chickpea, common bean, cowpea, lima bean, mung bean, rice beans, tepary bean, urdbean, garden pea, and pigeon pea). Some vegetables are perennial (artichoke, asparagus, Jerusalem artichoke, rhubarb, sea kale). Some agronomic crops are consumed as a vegetable in various stages, and these types are included as horticultural crops. Examples include sweet corn (the immature ears of a sweet type of maize), immature vegetable soybean or edamame, and the young leaves of amaranth.

Culinary herbs and spices. Aromatic plants used for culinary purposes are called herbs when they are temperate species and spices when they are tropical. Examples include allspice, anise, basil, capsicums, caraway, cardamom, cinnamon, chervil, clove, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, funugreek, garlic, ginger, laurel, marjoram, mint, mustard, nutmeg and mace, onion, organum, parsley, pepper, poppy seed, rosemary, saffron, sage, savory, sesame, star anise, tarragon, thyme, and turmeric.

Horticultural Societies

The field of horticulture has a great many organizations and societies devoted to all phases of horticulture, including amateurs and fanciers, growers and handlers, researchers, and academics. There are plant societies devoted to individual or groups of crops, trade organizations devoted to the production and marketing of individual horticultural crops, and scientific societies devoted to scientific research. In the United States, the principal society devoted to the science of horticulture is the American Society for Horticultural Science (founded 1903) with offices in Alexandria, Virginia. The society publishes three scholarly journals as well as books, and conducts annual meetings. Examples of other scientific societies in the United States include the American Pomological Society, devoted to fruits and nuts, and the American Potato Society. Growers of horticultural crops are also organized in state societies. Many countries have a national scientific society devoted to horticulture. The International Society for Horticultural Science located in Leuven, Belgium, sponsors international horticultural congresses every four years.

Horticultural Education

Horticulture is a recognized part of the curricula in agriculture worldwide. In the United States many land grant universities have horticulture departments devoted to undergraduate education leading to the B.S. degree. Most of these departments provide advanced training leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degree. However, since the 1990s

there has been a trend for horticulture and agronomy departments to combine into either a Crop Science or Plant Science department. A number of schools give two-year programs leading to associate degrees.

See also Agriculture since the Industrial Revolution ; Agriculture, Origins of ; Aquaculture ; Climate and Food ; Extension Services ; Farmers' Markets ; Gardening and Kitchen Gardens ; Genetic Engineering ; Greenhouse Horticulture ; High-Technology Farming ; Organic Agriculture ; Organic Farming and Gardening ; Organic Food ; Prehistoric Societies: Food Producers ; Sustainable Agriculture .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bailey, L. H. 1914. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. New York: Macmillan, 1914.

Bailey, L. H., Ethel Zoe Bailey, and the Staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. Hortus Third: A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan, 1976.

Brewster, James L. Onions and Other Vegetable Alliums. New York: CABI, 1994.

Brickell, Christopher, and David Joyce. The American Horticultural Society Pruning and Training. New York: DK Publishing, 1996.

Davidson, Harold, Roy Mecklenburg, and Curtis Peterson. Nursery Management: Administration and Culture. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 2000.

Davies, Frederick S., and L. Gene Albrigo. Citrus. New York: CABI, 1994.

Decoteau, Dennis R. Vegetable Crops. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 2000.

Dole, John M., and Harold F. Wilkins. Floriculture: Principles and Species. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

Everett, Thomas H., ed. The New York Botanical Garden Illustrated Encyclopedia of Horticulture. New York: Garland, 1981.

Galleta, Gene J., David Glenn Himelrick, and Lynda E. Chandler. Small Fruit Crop Management. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1990.

Harris, Richard Wilson, James R. Clark, and Nelda P. Matheny. Arboriculture: Integrated Management of Landscape Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

Hartmann, Hudson T., et al. Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices. 6th ed. Upper Saddle, River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1997.

Huxley, Anthony, ed. The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 1999.

Janick, Jules. Horticultural Reviews. New York: Wiley, 1983 to present.

Janick, Jules. Horticultural Science. 4th ed. New York: Freeman, 1986.

Janick, Jules, et al. Plant Science: An Introduction to World Crops. 3d ed. San Francisco: Freeman, 1981.

Morton, Julia Frances. Fruits of Warm Climates. Edited by Curtis F. Dowling. Miami, Fla., and Winterville, N.C.: Morton, 1987.

Nakasone, Henry Y., and Robert E. Paull. Tropical Fruits. New York: CABI, 1998.

Parry, John W. Spices: Morphology, Histology, Chemistry. 2nd ed. 2 vols. New York: Chemical Publishing, 1969.

Robinson, Richard W. Cucurbits. New York: CABI, 1997.

Vaughan, J. G., and Catherine A. Geissler. The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Westwood, Melvin N. Temperate-Zone Pomology: Physiology and Culture. 3d ed. Portland, Ore.: Timber Press, 1993.

K. C. Willson. Coffee, Cocoa and Tea. New York: CABI, 1999.

Jules Janick


Crop Propagation

Horticultural crops are multiplied sexually (seed propagation) or asexually (clonal or vegetative propagation). Many vegetables and herbaceous (soft-stemmed) ornamentals are seed-propagated (beans, tomato, petunia). However, some seed is produced by nonsexual means (apomixisbluegrass, many citrus, mango), and plants produced by this type of seed are considered vegetatively or clonally propagated. Clonal propagation occurs naturally in many horticultural crops through special vegetative structures such as the tubers of potato, the runners of strawberry, the cloves (corms) of garlic, or the bulbs of tulip. Clonal propagation can be achieved by cuttings, where pieces of the plant regenerate missing parts. Thus, shoot cuttings regenerate roots (grape), root cuttings regenerate shoots (sweet potato), and leaf cuttings regenerate shoots and roots (African violet). Most fruit crops are propagated using grafting techniques where plants are physically joined together, in which the combination of parts achieves physical union through tissue regeneration to grow as a single plant. The part of the combination that provides the root is called the stock; the added piece is called the scion. When the scion consists of a single bud only, the process is referred to as budding. A modern form of vegetatative propagation is called micropropagation and involves tissue culturethe aseptic growth of cells, tissues, or organs in artificial media.

This technique permits very rapid propagation and is widely used for many foliage plants. It is commonly used to produce disease-free stock of strawberry, which are later propagated in the field by runners.



Plant Domestication

The greatest advances in horticulture, the selection and domestication of our useful crops, were made in prehistory by farmers unknown and unsung. The basic techniques of horticulture were well established by ancient cultures in antiquity (5000 to 1500 years ago). In fact, a complete record of horticulture practices is illustrated in the tomb artwork of ancient Egypt. The horticultural technology of antiquity includes basic propagation techniques (seed handling, grafting, use of cuttings); planting and cultivation (plowing, seed bed preparation, weeding), irrigation technology involving water storage, lifting, and channeling; storage technology such as granaries; fertilization and crop rotation; plant selection; basic food technology (fermentation technology in bread-and winemaking, drying, and pickling), and even the beginning of protected culture (the Romans had a primitive greenhouse using mica for cucumber forcing).



The Morrill Acts

The land-grant universities trace their origins to the Morrill Act signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1862, a famous piece of legislation sponsored by Justin Smith Morrill of Massachusetts. Monies from the sale of public lands (30,000 acres for each of its Senate and House members) were to be used as a trust fund to endow a college where practical education in agriculture and engineering would be emphasized. The Agricultural Experiment Stations associated with the land-grant colleges trace to legislation (Hatch Act of 1887) sponsored by William H. Hatch of Missouri. In 1890, the Second Morrill Act was passed and provided direct annual appropriations and forbade racial discrimination in admission to colleges receiving the funds. States were allowed to escape this provision if separate institutions were maintained and a number of the "1890 colleges" in various states open to African Americans became known as "black colleges."


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Horticulturist

Horticulturist

Horticulturists find work in two distinct areas: agriculture and landscape design. The training for both of these specialties is the same but the day-today activities are different. People with a Bachelor of Science degree in botany, biology, or agriculture may find employment as horticulturists after college. A strong training in the basic sciences, especially chemistry and biology, is necessary.

An agricultural horticulturist is responsible for investigating the best techniques for managing the aboveground aspects of agriculture. These include pruning, mulching, trellising, plant spacing, and pollination. His or her partners in this endeavor are the agronomist, who is concerned with fertilization, irrigation, and drainage, and the integrated pest manager who is concerned with plant pathogens and pests. Each must know the essentials of the others' fields and all must work together to produce profitable food and fiber crops.

The landscape horticulturist is concerned with all aspects of plant growth: aboveground aspects and fertilization, irrigation, and drainage. The landscape horticulturist must also have training in art and architecture. It is essential to know the requirements of decorative plants. Horticulturists work for commercial nurseries; schools or businesses with a "campus" or landscaped grounds; entertainment centers such as theme parks; and local, state, and federal governmental agencies (such as public works departments) for the creation of green spaces and color spots along highways, in city parks, or in residential areas.

see also Agriculture; Agronomist; Propagation

Dennis Carnes

Bibliography

Acquaah, George. Horticulture: Principles and Practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.

Garner, Jerry. Careers in Horticulture and Botany. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1999.

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horticulture

horticulture [Lat. hortus=garden], science and art of gardening and of cultivating fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants. Horticulture generally refers to small-scale gardening, and agriculture to the growing of field crops, usually on a large scale, although the distinction is not always precise (for example, market gardening could be classed either way). A horticultural variety of a plant is one produced under cultivation, as distinguished from the botanical species or varieties, which occur in nature. Although many horticultural practices are very ancient (see botany), comparatively recent knowledge of genetics, plant physiology, biochemistry, ecology, plant pathology, entomology, molecular biology, and soils, and the systematic application of such knowledge to practical use (e.g., in plant breeding), has expanded horticulture into an extremely complex science. Agencies such as the various bureaus of the Dept. of Agriculture, the state experimental stations, and the many agricultural colleges; organizations such as the American Horticultural Society and the various state horticultural societies and local granges and garden clubs; and the commercial flower-growing and experimental nurseries (see nursery)—all engage in developing, analyzing, systematizing, and disseminating improved horticultural practices for the benefit of both amateur and professional gardeners. See also garden.

See E. P. Christopher, Introductory Horticulture (1958); J. B. Edmond et al., Fundamentals of Horticulture (3d ed. 1964); T. H. Everett, The New York Botanical Garden Illustrated Encyclopedia of Horticulture (10 vol., 1980–82).

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Horticulture

Horticulture

Horticulture is the science and art of growing and caring for plants, especially flowers, fruits, and vegetables. Whereas agronomy (a branch of agriculture) refers to the growing of field crops, horticulture refers to small-scale gardening. The word horticulture comes from Latin and means "garden cultivation."

Within the field of horticulture, seed growers, plant growers, and nurseries are the major suppliers of plant products. Among the important specialists who work in the field of horticulture are plant physiologists, who work on the nutritional needs of plants, and plant entomologists, who work to protect plants from insect damage.

Horticulturists are often involved in the landscaping and maintenance of public gardens, parks, golf courses, and ball fields. For the amateur home gardener, the rewards

are both recreational and emotional. Gardening is one of the most popular pastimes for peoplenot only for those living in suburbs, but for city dwellers who plant window boxes, grow house plants, or develop a garden in an empty city lot.

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Horticulturist

Horticulturist

A horticulturist practices the scientific or practical aspects of horticulture growing, producing, utilizing, and studying horticultural crop plants and plant products. Careers in horticulture range from the scientific to the applied.

Careers in horticulture can be found in government (both state and national) agricultural research agencies, public and private universities, small companies, and multinational corporations. Jobs may entail laboratory work, greenhouse crop production and/or management, and field production. Research may involve developing and testing new products or technologies to improve the quality, appearance, handling, storage, or research and development of new plants or plant-derived products. Additional fundamental research is done to gain understanding of plant function, physiology , biochemistry, and genetics at the organismal, cellular, enzymatic, or molecular levels.

Horticulturists interested in teaching find employment at the high school, community school, vocational school, community college, or university levels. Emerging careers in horticulture include the study of plant-people interactions (the effects plants have on people), and horticulture therapythe use of horticulture and gardening as a means of rehabilitation for those with physical, mental, or emotional limitations or challenges.

The practical or applied horticulturist is trained to utilize or manage plants and to design and maintain landscapes appropriately. Field horticulturists may be involved in the production of fruits and nuts (pomology), grapes (viticulture), and flowers and greenhouse crops (floriculture). They may also handle the arrangement, display, and marketing of cut flowers and greenery (floristry). Other possible areas of responsibility include the production of ornamental plants, trees, and shrubs (nursery production); landscape design, installation, and management; public or private garden installation and care; the design, installation, and maintenance of plants in indoor environments (interior plantscaping); turfgrass production, installation, and upkeep; and the handling, storage, and shipping of horticulture crops or plant products. The practical field horticulturist handles plant nutrition by fertilization, water status by irrigation, and plant size and shape by pinching, pruning, training, and mowing. Plant growth, development, and flowering is managed by the use of regulating chemicals or environmental management (temperature and light intensity and duration). The horticulturist is often the person primarily responsible for pest (both insects and disease) control and prevention management. Ultimately, the horticulturist is responsible for producing plants or plant products of the highest quality, value, and appearance.

Exciting developments in horticulture include the exploration of new plants as landscape greenery or for their potential medicinal contents and the discovery of wild types of cultivated crop plants such as strawberry, onion, tomato, or apple, which may contain genes for disease resistance or improved nutritional quality. Crops are being bioengineered for improved pest resistance, thereby requiring less pesticide in production, and being modified for increased storage life. Molecular biology and genetic engineering may result in the development of entirely new crops and/or the production of plants containing phyto-pharmaceuticalsplant-produced chemicals for use as beneficial drugs. Molecular biology and biochemistry are shedding new light on how plants grow and function, which will lead to new developments in crop production systems and management.

The level of employment and responsibility of a horticulturist relates to one's amount of training, education, and experience. Horticultural training at the high school and vocational level typically involves work in plant management, production, and maintenance operations. At the college level, horticulturists receive fundamental education in plant science and biology as a foundation to understanding plant growth, development, and management. Typically, college curricula include strong training in science, including botany and plant anatomy/morphology, chemistry and biochemistry, genetics, physics, soil science, pest management, and plant physiology. Additionally, students receive training in the science and technology of horticulture, including greenhouse operations, nursery production, landscape design, landscape installation and management, fruit and vegetable production, and plant propagation. Students interested in pursuing scientific/technology development careers or those who wish to teach horticulture may continue college studies in a master's or Ph.D. program.

Beginning horticulturists are typically responsible for plant management operations. Increased education, training, and experience result in increased decision-making and responsibility for operations and crew management. Entry-level positions with no training or experience begin at minimum wage, but with higher levels of training, experience, and increased ownership of an operation, salaries exceeded $100,000 per year. In 1999, students with a college degree found employment in the range of $25,000 to $40,000 for entry-level management positions. Salaries increase with experience gained through internships, fellowships, special research projects, travel, and part-time employment.

Horticulture production, education, and science careers can be found throughout the world. In the United States, primary horticulture production occurs in California, Florida, Texas, Georgia, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. However, landscape horticulture, retail garden center production, florist operations, public and private gardening, park landscape management, and landscaping design, installation, and maintenance operations flourish in all towns, cities, and metropolitan areas. International careers can be found through government and nongovernment agencies such as the Peace Corps, or with large multinational horticultural companies.

A commonality of horticulturists is, simply, that they enjoy working with plants. Horticulturists typically have a strong environmental ethic and enjoy contributing to beautifying and improving the environment and conserving natural resources.

see also Arborist; College Professor; Curator of a Botanical Garden; Curator of an Herbarium; Horticulture; Landscape Architect.

Curt R. Rom

Bibliography

Acquaah, George. Horticulture Principles and Practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

Aggie Horticulture (Texas A&M University). [Online] Available at http://aggiehorticulture.tamu.edu/introhtml/internet.html.

American Society for Horticultural Science. [Online] Available at www.ashs.org.

Janick, Jules. Horticultural Science. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1986.

Ohio State University Horticulture in Virtual Perspective. [Online] Available at http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/webgarden.html.

Virtual Garden. [Online] Available at http://www.vg.com/.

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Horticulture

Horticulture

The word horticulture translates as "garden cultivation," or to cultivate garden plants. It was first used in publication in 1631 and was an entry in The New World of English Words in 1678. Today horticulture means the science, technology, art, business, and hobby of producing and managing fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants, landscapes, interior plantscapes, and grasses and turfgrasses. Although horticulture has been practiced for several millennia, it became a recognized academic and scientific discipline as it emerged from botany and medicinal botany in the late nineteenth century. Liberty Hyde Bailey, professor of horticulture at both Michigan State and Cornell Universities, is credited as the father of American horticulture, as he founded the first academic departments of horticulture.

Modern horticulture encompasses plant production (both commercial and gardening) and science, both practical and applied. Horticulture and the associated green industries are a rapidly developing professional field with increasing importance to society. The direct "farm-gate" value of horticultural crop production in the United States exceeds $40 billion; the overall value to the economy is much higher due to value added in preparation and preservation, or installation, and use and maintenance of horticultural plants and products.

Horticultural plants include fresh fruits and vegetables, herbaceous annual and perennial flowering plants, flowers produced as cut flowers for vase display, woody shrubs and trees, ornamental grasses, and turfgrasses used for landscapes and sports facilities. The crops encompass plants from tropical areas (fruits, vegetables, and tropical foliage plants) to those from the temperate zone. Horticulture crops are typically consumed or used as freshly harvested products and therefore are short-lived after harvest. Product quality, nutrition, flavor, and aesthetic appearance are important attributes of horticultural crops and are the goal of production and management. The production of horticultural plants is typified by intense management, high management cost, environmental control, significant technology use, and high risk. However, the plants, because of their high value as crops, result in very high economic returns. Horticultural crop plant production and maintenance requires extensive use of soil manipulation (including use of artificial or synthetic soil mixes), irrigation, fertilization, plant growth regulation, pruning/pinching/trimming, and environmental control. Plants can be grown in natural environments, such as orchards, vineyards, or groves for fruits, grapes, nuts, and citrus, or as row crops for vegetables. Plants can also be produced in very confined environments, such as in nurseries, greenhouses, growth rooms, or in pots. Horticultural plants exhibit wide variation and diversity in their cultivated varieties (cultivars) with differences in flower or fruit color and plant shape, form, size, color, or flavor and aroma adding to that diversity and to the plants' value.

Horticultural plants are very important to human health and well being and are critical to the environment of homes, communities, and the world. Horticulture food crops play an important role in human nutrition. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables be consumed daily to provide important nutrients and vitamins and to maintain overall good health. The use of landscape plants has been demonstrated to increase the property value of homes and improve communities and the attitudes of those owning or using the property. Use of plants in the landscape, development of public parks and greenbelts, and planting trees all help remediate pollution and contribute to production of oxygen in the air. Plants used indoors, whether flowers or house plants or interior plant scaping, improve the indoor environment by purifying air, removing some pollutants and dusts, and adding beauty, thereby improving the attitude and well being of those who occupy or use the inside areas.

A number of techniques are used in horticulture. New plant cultivars are developed through plant hybridization and genetic engineering. The number of plants is increased through plant propagation by seeds, cuttings, grafting, and plant tissue and cell culture. Plant growth can be controlled by pinching, pruning, bending, and training. Plant growth, flowering, and fruiting can also be controlled or modified by light and temperature variation. Further, growth and flowering can be altered by the use of growth-regulating chemicals and/or plant hormones. The rate of plant growth and quality of plant products are controlled by managing fertilizer and nutrient application through fertigation or hydroponic solution culture. Posthar-vest product longevity is controlled by manipulating plant or product hormone physiology or by controlling respiration by lowering temperature or modifying environmental gas content.

The scientific and technological disciplines of horticulture include plant genetics, plant breeding, genetic engineering and molecular biology, variety development, propagation and tissue culture, crop and environmental physiology, plant nutrition, hormone physiology and growth regulation, plant physical manipulation (pruning and training), and environmental control. The crop disciplines of horticulture include pomology (fruit and nut culture), viticulture (grape production), enology (wine production), oleri-culture (vegetable culture), floriculture (flower culture) and greenhouse management, ornamental horticulture and nursery production, arboriculture (tree maintenance), landscape horticulture, interior plant scaping, turf management, and postharvest physiology, preservation, and storage.

see also Agriculture, Modern; Botanical Gardens and Arboreta; Horticulturist; Hydroponics; Ornamental Plants; Propagation.

Curt R. Rom

Bibliography

Acquaah, George. Horticulture Principles and Practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

American Society for Horticultural Science. [Online] Available at http:ashs.org.

Janick, Jules. Horticultural Science. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1986.

Harlan, Jack R. The Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Lohr, Virginia I., and Diane Relf. "An Overview of the Current State of Human Issues in Horticulture in the United States." HortTechnology 10 (2000): 27-33.

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horticulture

hor·ti·cul·ture / ˈhôrtiˌkəlchər/ • n. the art or practice of garden cultivation and management. DERIVATIVES: hor·ti·cul·tur·al / ˌhôrtiˈkəlchərəl/ adj. hor·ti·cul·tur·al·ist / ˌhôrtiˈˌkəlchərəlist/ n. hor·ti·cul·tur·ist / ˌhôrtəˈˌkəlchərist/ n.

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horticulture

horticulture Growing of vegetables, fruits, seeds, herbs, shrubs, and flowers on a commercial scale. Techniques employed include propagation by leaf, stem, and root cuttings, and by stem and bud grafting. Fruit trees, shrubs, and vines are usually propagated by grafting the fruiting stock on to a hardier rootstock. seed is a major horticultural crop. Close scientific control of pollination is essential for producing crops of specific quality.

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horticulture

horticulture, horticultural societies Horticulture is the system of production that depends on the cultivation of plants. Horticultural societies are those in which this system predominates.

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horticulture

horticulture XVII. f. L. hortus garden.

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horticulture

horticulturebotcher, gotcha, top-notcher, watcher, wotcha •imposture, posture •firewatcher • birdwatcher •debaucher, scorcher, torture •Boucher, voucher •cloture, encroacher, poacher, reproacher •jointure • moisture •cachucha, future, moocher, smoocher, suture •butcher •kuccha, scutcher, toucher •structure •culture, vulture •conjuncture, juncture, puncture •rupture • sculpture • viniculture •agriculture • sericulture •arboriculture • pisciculture •horticulture • silviculture •subculture • counterculture •aquaculture • acupuncture •substructure • infrastructure •candidature • ligature • judicature •implicature •entablature, tablature •prelature • nomenclature • filature •legislature • musculature •premature • signature • aperture •curvature •lurcher, nurture, percher, searcher

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horticulturist

horticulturist •tantrist •guitarist, scenarist, tsarist •sitarist • memoirist • belletrist •centrist • Marist • sacrist •lyrist, panegyrist •equilibrist • interest •optometrist, psychometrist, sociometrist •satirist •afforest, florist, forest, Forrest •rainforest • folklorist •careerist, querist, theorist •plagiarist • meliorist • apiarist •topiarist • diarist • psychiatrist •jurist, purist, tourist •obituarist • caricaturist • pedicurist •manicurist • sinecurist • naturist •miniaturist • futurist •agriculturist, apiculturist, arboriculturist, horticulturist, pisciculturist, sericulturist, silviculturist, viniculturist, viticulturist •acupuncturist • welfarist • allegorist •Eucharist • artillerist • secularist •particularist •colourist (US colorist) •amorist • ephemerist • mesmerist •consumerist, humorist •mannerist • tenorist • seminarist •terrorist • adventurist • detectorist •documentarist • militarist •monetarist • lepidopterist •motorist, votarist •scooterist • voluntarist • zitherist •Everest • aquarist • auteurist

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