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espalier

espalier (ĕspăl´yər), trellis or lattice used in horticulture for training a tree or vine flat against a wall, either for ornament or to fit it into a small space, allowing it to get a maximum of air and sun and bringing the fruit within easy reach for gathering. The plant, often an apple or pear tree, may be trained into various shapes, such as a fan or a fork. The term is more commonly used for the tree or vine so trained.

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"espalier." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"espalier." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/espalier

"espalier." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 12, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/espalier

espalier

es·pal·ier / iˈspalyər; -yā/ • n. a fruit tree or ornamental shrub whose branches are trained to grow flat against a wall, supported on a framework.

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"espalier." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"espalier." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/espalier-0

"espalier." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved December 12, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/espalier-0

espalier

espalier.
1. Lattice-work trellis upon which tree-branches are trained in horizontal directions.

2. Row of trees so trained, without the trellis.

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"espalier." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"espalier." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/espalier

"espalier." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved December 12, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/espalier

espalier

espalier XVII. — F. — It. spalliera applied to supports for the shoulders, hence to stakes of that height, f. spalla shoulder.

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"espalier." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"espalier." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/espalier-1

"espalier." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved December 12, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/espalier-1

espalier

espaliermyalgia, nostalgia •sporangia •florilegia, quadriplegia •Phrygia • Thuringia • loggia • Borgia •apologia, eulogia •Perugia •Czechoslovakia, Slovakia •Saskia •clarkia, souvlakia •rudbeckia •fakir, Wallachia •Ischia •Antalya, espalier, pallia, rallier •shilly-shallyer • Somalia •hotelier, Montpellier, sommelier, St Helier •Australia, azalea, bacchanalia, Castalia, dahlia, echolalia, genitalia, inter alia, Lupercalia, Mahalia, marginalia, paraphernalia, regalia, Saturnalia, Thalia, Westphalia •Amelia, camellia, Celia, Cordelia, Cornelia, Delia, Elia, epithelia, Karelia, Montpelier, Ophelia, psychedelia •bougainvillea, Brasília, cilia, conciliar, familiar, haemophilia (US hemophilia), Hillier, juvenilia, memorabilia, necrophilia, paedophilia (US pedophilia), sedilia •chanticleer •collier, volleyer •cochlea • haulier •Anatolia, magnolia, melancholia, Mongolia •Apulia, dulia, Julia, peculiar •nuclear, sub-nuclear, thermonuclear •buddleia

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"espalier." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 12 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"espalier." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/espalier

"espalier." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved December 12, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/espalier