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chernozem

chernozem (chĕr´nəzĕm´) or black earth, variety of soil rich in organic matter in the form of humus. It is generally a modified type of loess. True chernozem is black in color, but there are various grades, shading off into gray and chestnut-brown soils. It forms in areas that have cold winters, hot summers, and rapid evaporation of precipitation; generally only tall grass is found native on chernozem. It has large quantities of nutrients, excellent structure, and good water-holding capacity, making it very suitable for agriculture. It is most widely distributed in Russia, where it forms a large part of the good agricultural soil, but soils similar to the Russian are also found in India and the central and N central United States.

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"chernozem." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"chernozem." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chernozem

"chernozem." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chernozem

chernozem

chernozem(black earth) A freely draining soil profile whose name is the Russian word for ‘black earth’. Chernozems are associated with grassland vegetation in temperate climates, and identified by the deep and even distribution of humus and of exchangeable cations (calcium and magnesium) through the profile (included in Mollisols of the USDA Soil Taxonomy). Because of their richness in plant nutrients and their excellent crumb structure, chernozems are among the most agriculturally productive soils in the world.

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"chernozem." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"chernozem." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chernozem-0

"chernozem." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chernozem-0

chernozem

chernozem (black earth) A freely draining soil profile whose name is the Russian word for ‘black earth’. Chernozems are associated with grassland vegetation in temperate climates, and identified by the deep and even distribution of humus and of exchangeable cations (calcium and magnesium) through the profile (now included in Mollisols). Because of their richness in plant nutrients and their excellent crumb structure, chernozems are among the most agriculturally productive soils in the world.

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"chernozem." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"chernozem." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chernozem-1

"chernozem." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chernozem-1

chernozem

chernozem (black earth) Freely draining, dark coloured soil profile whose name is the Russian word for ‘black earth’. Chernozems are associated with grassland vegetation in temperate climates, and identified by the deep and even distribution of humus and of exchangeable cations (calcium and magnesium) through the profile (now included in Mollisols).

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"chernozem." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"chernozem." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chernozem

"chernozem." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chernozem