Skip to main content

Monterey: Recreation

Monterey: Recreation

Sightseeing

Monterey's Cannery Row, popularized by the books of Nobel and Pulitzer award winner John Steinbeck, is one of America's most famous streets. Today Cannery Row features a variety of shops, restaurants, and attractions, including American Tin Cannery Premium Outlets and A Taste of Monterey Wine Tasting Room. The Blue Fin Cafe & Billiards overlooks Steinbeck Plaza and offers a panoramic view of Monterey Bay and Cannery Row. Steinbeck's Spirit of Monterey Wax Museum recreates the history of Cannery Row through life-sized characters and narration. The Edgewater Family Fun Center, across from the Cannery, has the area's largest video arcade, a snack bar, old-time photos, a magic shop, and bike and surrey rentals. Other amusements in Cannery Row include a shop which rents reproductions of old roadster convertibles, an old-fashioned portrait studio, and a ceramic painting studio.

Fisherman's Wharf and Wharf #2 stretch side-by-side into the Monterey Harbor. Fisherman's Wharf is lined with seafood restaurants, fish markets, art galleries, shops, candy stores, a theater, and fish and diving companies. Municipal Wharf #2 is a working fish pier where commercial fishing boats can be seen unloading their daily catch. On holidays, the fisherman often decorate their craft with colorful strings of lights.

Cannery Row's Monterey Bay Aquarium features marine life ranging from playful sea otters to drifting jellyfish, octopuses, giant ocean sunfish, green sea turtles, swirling yellow-fin tuna, and hundreds of other creatures. A recent addition is a white shark, the only one on exhibit in the world. Slated for a May 2005 opening is a new exhibit entitled,"Ocean's Edge: Coastal Habitats of Monterey Bay." The aquarium showcases the largest ocean sanctuary in the United States in a three-story-tall living kelp forest, the million-gallon Outer Bay exhibit, a jellyfish gallery, expanded touch pools, and dozens more recently renovated galleries and exhibits.

Monterey State Historic Park downtown marks the spot where the U.S. flag was first officially raised on July 7, 1846, heralding California's statehood. Ten buildings, including the Custom House, California's first theater, and several former 1830s residences, now museums, preserve the area's heritage.

Tours are available of Colton Hall, a local landmark from the time when Monterey was the capital of Alta California. The hall was built to serve as a public school and town meeting hall and now is a museum. California's first Constitution was drafted there 150 years ago.

Visitors to the area enjoy whale watching (best in winter) and fishing trips. Other popular tours departing from Monterey can be guided or self-guided. Wine tasting, sightseeing, and agricultural education tours are available, as well as movie tours of scenes from popular movies filmed in the area. Point Pios Lighthouse at the northernmost tip of the Monterey Peninsula is open for guided tours. The 17-mile drive along the coast through Pebble Beach affords spectacular views of rugged coastline and animals in their natural habitats.

Arts and Culture

The Monterey Museum of Art has a fine collection of early Christian, Asian, American folk, ethnic, and tribal art. It also offers photographic exhibits and rotating exhibits of major American artists. The museum is housed in two facilities, Pacific Street and La Mirada. Pacific Street, located across from Colton Hall in the historic center of Monterey, includes eight galleries as well as the Buck Education Center and Library. The Monterey Museum of Art at La Mirada is situated in one of Monterey's oldest neighborhoods and is surrounded by magnificent gardens and picturesque stone walls. It began as a two-room adobe structure and later became an elegant home where international and regional celebrities were entertained. Visitors today experience the same exquisitely furnished home and spectacular rose and rhododendron gardens. Visitors view the museum's permanent collection and changing exhibitions in four contemporary galleries, including the Dart Wing designed by renowned architect Charles Moore, that complement the original estate.

The Monterey Conference Center features impressive permanent and rotating collections. Sculptures, paintings, and tapestries from contemporary local artists adorn its walls and public spaces. Visitors are greeted by Two Dolphins, a nine-foot-tall sculpture composed of thousands of pieces of inlaid wood. The work, created by Big Sur artist Emile Norman, depicts two dolphins in flight as they dance across the sea. On the center's second floor, the Alvarado Gallery presents an ever-changing array of art from Peninsula artists.

Festivals and Holidays

Colorful events fill Monterey's calendar throughout the year. In January the annual migration of the gray whales is saluted through a variety of events such as art projects, story telling, whale watching, and exhibits. The sounds of Dixieland and Swing fill the March air during the three days of Dixieland Monterey, held in various venues with dance floors and special events.

The spotlight is on young, up-and-coming musicians during the three-day Next Generation Jazz Festival held annually in April. The Annual Sea Otter Classic, the largest bicycle festival in the country, features road cycling, mountain biking, downhill, and BMX events. Original hand-made arts and crafts are for sale at the Spring Arts & Crafts Fair. The Old Monterey Plein Air Painting and Art Promenade showcases artists of all ages busy at work on the streets of Monterey. The Monterey Wine Festival, held at the end of April, featuring California wines exclusively, consists of tastings, educational seminars, and cooking demonstrations.

On May 15, Cannery Row celebrates the life and times of Ed "Doc" Ricketts, a revolutionary marine biologist and mentor of John Steinbeck. Mountain bikers can race solo or team up to ride as many laps as possible in the 24 Hours of Adrenalin Cycle Race. "Back to the Boatyard" Beer Festival is a lively celebration of great beers in May. Three days of blues music on three stages is the focus of the Monterey Bay Blues Festival at the Monterey Fairgrounds in June.

July's big events include the Community Fourth of July Parade, picnic and fireworks, the commemoration of John Drake Sloat's landing in Monterey on July 8, and the Obon Festival at the Buddhist Temple. August is enlivened by the Annual Winemaster's Celebration, the Turkish Festival, the Monterey County Fair, and the Historic Automobile Races. Crowds dine and dance at September's Annual Bay ReggaeFest, Rock and Art Festival, Annual Greek Festival, Festa Italia-Santa Rosalia Festival, the Cherry's Jubilee classic car show, the Fishermen's Fiesta and the Monterey Beer Festival. The world-famous Monterey Jazz Festival offers non-stop jazz by top performers as well as food, art, and jazz clinics. Fresh seafood, music, and crafts are the focus of October's Old Monterey Seafood & Music Festival. A re-enactment of California's first Constitutional Convention takes place each October on California Constitution Day. International Day in October celebrates cultural diversity in entertainment, food and cultural demonstrations from 35 countries. A week-long focus on the history of Monterey is History Fest Monterey. The Monterey Sports Car Championships features Le Mans style racing as the main event at the Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca.

November's annual Great Wine Escape Weekend showcases the products of local vintners. Runners of all ages participate in the Big Sur Half Marathon and 5K Run, and the Cannery Row Christmas Tree Lighting welcomes the arrival of Santa Claus to the city. Christmas in the Adobes showcases Monterey's historic buildings illuminated and decorated for the holidays. December also brings the Annual Monterey Cowboy Poetry and Music Festival. First Night Monterey draws crowds throughout the city to music, dance, and poetry events to welcome in the New Year.

Sports for the Spectator

World-class automobile racing events are held at the Laguna Seca Raceway, east of downtown Monterey. The raceway also hosts five major racing events annually including Indy car, motorcycle, and historic automobile events. The World Superbike Championships and the Honda Grand Prix are also held at the Raceway.

Sports for the Participant

The City of Monterey Sports Center is the largest family fitness facility on the Monterey Peninsula, offering a full range of fitness activities, as well as two pools and a water slide. The city has several neighborhood parks. The El Estero Park complex, a 45-acre city-wide multi-use recreation area in the center of the city, offers paddleboats, swimming, picnicking, and an exercise course. Located in the park complex are a number of recreational facilities including the Dennis The Menace Park, designed by the popular cartoon character's creator Hal Ketcham. It features a steam engine, sway bridge, a sandy hills slide, a rollers-slide, sun bridge, garden maze, and a handicap play area. The Monterey Youth Center is a multi-use recreation facility for youth and adult activities. The Monterey Youth Center Dance Studio is a professional dance studio with a wooden floor, wall mirrors, ballet bars, and a public address system. Located next to Lake El Estero is the Monterey Skate Park designed for skateboarders and inline skaters. The city also boasts two ballparks.

Monterey Bay Waterfront Park/Window on the Bay offers4.1 acres of turf and landscaped areas adjacent to the beach that feature five sand volleyball courts and picnic and grill facilities. The Monterey Tennis Club has six lighted tennis courts and a pro shop.

Private sea kayak outfitters help visitors discover Monterey by sea, by paddling through the kelp forest along Cannery Row and observing sea otters and the abundant marine life. Diving, skydiving, and sailing are all available to sports enthusiasts on Monterey Bay.

Shopping and Dining

Del Monte Center, Monterey's traditional regional shopping center, anchored by Macy's and Mervyn's, has approximately 90 businesses offering a wide variety of goods and services. Recent additions to the center include California Pizza Kitchen, Ann Taylor Loft, and a Century 13 Theatre. Monterey has a busy downtown shopping area. The Old Monterey Market Place is one of the largest in the United States, attracting thousands of tourists and residents downtown every Tuesday afternoon. New Monterey, an emerging commercial area with an eclectic mix of new businesses, includes Lighthouse Avenue, and is located three blocks up the hill from Cannery Row. The former sardine canning factories of Cannery Row have become the center of more than 50 factory outlets. North Fremont, adjacent to the Monterey Fair-grounds, is a high traffic area and serves the many tourists who attend activities at the Monterey Fairgrounds.

Monterey's extensive marine life, along with the native American, Spanish, Mediterranean Rim, and Asian heritages of its citizens from various eras has influenced the local cuisine. Restaurant choices run the gamut from American Regional to Asian, British, California, Continental, French, Indian, Island Grill, Italian, Mexican, Swiss, and seafood cuisines. Monterey restaurant chefs are inspired by the abundance of robustly flavored signature area crops such as lettuce, artichokes, garlic, strawberries, and a variety of mushrooms.

Visitor Information: Monterey County Convention & Visitors Bureau, 150 Olivier St., PO Box 1770, Monterey, CA 93942; telephone (831)649-1770; toll-free (888)221-1010.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: Recreation." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: Recreation." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-recreation

"Monterey: Recreation." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-recreation

Monterey: Economy

Monterey: Economy

Major Industries and Commercial Activity

Once a leading fishing and whaling port, Monterey county's economic mainstays now are tourism and the military. While tourism has always been a major component in the city's economy, it has become the dominant industry in the last 30 years, supporting more than one third of Monterey jobs. Today, hotel taxes provide 29 percent of the city budget and the main source of funding for municipal services is derived from the visitor industry. The prime tourist season runs April through Thanksgiving. While the city's economy suffered greatly from the lack of travel due to the events of September 11, 2001, Monterey tourism is on the rebound. The Monterey Bay Aquarium is the prime attraction, and numerous restaurants, art galleries, gift shops, and an Antiques Mall have created a wide variety of shopping opportunities. Tourists also come to observe the special events tied to the historic Cannery Row Area, made famous by novelist John Steinbeck, local son of the nearby city of Salinas. Its reputation as a world class golfing destination brings golfers to the championship golf courses at Pebble Beach and other area courses. Independent travelers (those not with a tour group) make up the largest class of overnight visitors to the Monterey Bay Area and are primarily from elsewhere in California. It is estimated that 4 million people visit Monterey each year. The city's population increases to nearly 70,000 during tourist seasons.

Due to its strategic location, Monterey has historically been a key military outpost. Today, the city's military installations continue to provide tremendous support to the economy, particularly through its educational institutions. The Army's Defense Language Institute provides language instruction for agents of the FBI, Drug Enforcement Administration, and Border Patrol. The Naval Postgraduate School offers advance classroom training for Naval officers. The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center, operated by the Navy, is one of the world's leading numerical weather prediction centers. According to the Monterey County Herald, these institutions contribute $1 billion to the local economy. The economic impact of spending by the School and employees of the Naval Postgraduate School alone amounts to $140.2 million channeled into the local economies of Monterey County. However, the changing needs of the military, coupled with its efforts to streamline operations, threaten the closure of many of the country's military bases and those in California are not exempt.

The government employs 18 percent of the county's work-force. Other significant sectors of Monterey's economy include trade, transportation and utilities which account for 16 percent of all employment in the county. Workers in the leisure and hospitality sector, including arts, recreation, entertainment, accommodations and food service, make up 12 percent of the workforce.

As Monterey looks to the future, the challenge will be to balance the cyclical nature of the tourist economy while finding ways to provide higher paying jobs. Monterey will increasingly see its economy based on educational and research activities. Marine biology and the environmental sciences are expected to make a very large impact on the economy of the region.

Items and goods produced: vegetables, fish and seafood, light manufactured products

Incentive ProgramsNew and Existing Companies

Local programs

The California Coastal Rural Development Corporation operates a variety of small business loan programs, as well as Monterey's Micro-Business Loan Program. The Central Coast Small Business Development Center (SBDC) provides no-cost, hands-on technical assistance and support to small businesses on California's Central Coast. Confidential counseling, classes, workshops, seminars, and loan programs are available through the SBDC.

State programs

With the Manufacturers' Investment Credit, companies that purchase manufacturing or R&D equipment for use anywhere in California are allowed a tax credit equal to six percent of the costs paid or incurred for acquiring the property. Other incentives include the California research and development tax credit, which allows companies to receive a credit of 8 percent for qualified research expenses (research done in-house), and 12 percent for basic research payments (payments made in cash to an outside company). The California Association for Local Economic Development (CALED) offers conferences, workshops, an on-site Professional Advisory Service, technical assistance and problem solving.

Job training programs

The Private Industry Council (PIC) offers specialized services designed for laid off workers who have been displaced from their jobs due to plant closures or relocation. Programs for older workers, limited English speakers, offenders, physically handicapped youth, teen parents, and other at risk youth are also available. The city of Monterey can also provide information about agencies that assist international businesses with training employees. JobLINK of Monterey County provides employment and training opportunities and services to laid off workers, long-term unemployed, displaced homemakers, and persons over55. The California Employment Development Department offers computerized job matching and placement, job search workshops, job listings, a Job Club, information on unemployment insurance, and job training programs.

Development Projects

When a change in military needs led to the downsizing of Fort Ord in 1993, the 13,000 soldiers and family members who lived there were relocated. The city is making efforts to replace the lost revenue by redeveloping the area into an educational, residential, commercial and light industrial center. A Base Reuse Plan has been developed to guide the planning and implementation process through 2014. Plans include removing toxins from military use from the site and constructing housing at all income levels, making recreational improvements, and conserving a portion of the land for endangered species. Once the process is started, it is estimated that it will take five to seven years to complete the relocation, rehabilitation, hazard abatement, and demolition removal activities at the Fort. In 2005, the U. S. Army had finished a substantial amount of the clean-up, but more funds were needed to complete the project. The Defense Language Institute, the Naval Postgraduate School and the Coast Guard station now occupy 750 acres of the property, which has been annexed to the Presidio of Monterey. California State University at Monterey Bay and the Monterey Institute of International Studies have opened campuses there, as well as the University of California at Santa Cruz, with a new research center on the property. The remaining half of the property is being turned over to the U.S. Bureau of Land Management to manage as open spaces.

Monterey City Council approved a building permit for the construction of an IMAX theater in Cannery Row. Also on Cannery Row, plans call for a Monterey Peninsula Hotel. A new Public Service Center or City Hall project was also being considered in 2005.

Economic Development Information: California Coastal Rural Development Corp., 479 Pacific St., #5A, Monterey, CA 93940; telephone (831)641-0722; fax (831)641-0723. Central Coast Small Business Development Center at Cabrillo College, 6500 Soquel Drive, Aptos, CA 95003; telephone (831)479-6136

Labor Force and Employment Outlook

Monterey County's civilian labor force totaled 200,000 workers in 2002. The area employs both seasonal and year-round workers since the visitor industry accounts for such a large part of the economy. Despite seasonal fluctuations, the labor force grew 2 percent over 2001 figures. According to the Monterey Peninsula Chamber of Commerce, the ratio of people in the labor force and employment roles have remained constant since 1998. One challenge to attracting new employees to the city of Monterey has been its lack of affordable housing. Since the jobs fueled by the tourist industry in Monterey tend to be lower paying jobs, affordable housing is especially needed. In recent history, between9.4 and 10.4 percent of the population was unemployed. It reached 12.9 percent in December 2004.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Monterey area, 2003 annual averages.

Size of nonagricultural labor force: 130,000

Number of workers employed in . . .

natural resources and mining: 200

construction: 6,500

manufacturing: 7,700

trade, transportation and utilities: 25,200

information: 2,400

financial activities: 6,600

professional and business services: 14,400

educational and health services: 12,100

leisure and hospitality: 19,400

other services: 4,400

government: 31,000

Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $15.50

Unemployment rate: 12.9% (December 2004)

Largest employers (Salinas Valley) Number of employees
Dole Fresh Vegetables 4,700
County of Monterey 4,435
Tanimura and Antle Inc. 3,000
Naval Postgraduate School 2,600
Escamilla and Sons Inc., Spreckels 2,060
Salinas Valley Memorial Healthcare System 1,900
D'Arrigo Bros. Co. of CA 1,700
Fresh Express, Fresh Food 1,650
CDC Correctional Training Facility, Soledad 1,531
Household 1,526

Cost of Living

The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors for the Monterey area.

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Average House Price: $766,310 (San Jose metro)

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Cost of Living Index: 170.8 (San Jose metro) (U.S. average = 100.0)

State income tax rate: 1.0% to 9.3%

State sales tax rate: 6%

Local income tax rate: None

Local sales tax rate: 1.25% (county)

Property tax rate: 1% of assessed value

Economic Information: Monterey Peninsula Chamber of Commerce, 380 Alvarado St., Monterey, CA 93940; telephone (861)648-5360; fax (831) 649-3502; e-mail info @mpcc.com.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: Economy." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: Economy." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-economy

"Monterey: Economy." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-economy

Monterey: History

Monterey: History

Early Settlements

Native Americans known as the Esalen lived in the area of present-day Monterey from 500 B.C. to 500 A.D., and probably much longer. The Esalen were displaced in 500 B.C. by the Ohlone Indians, who were drawn to the area by the abundance of fish and wildlife and other natural resources. The Indians hunted quail, geese, rabbit, bear, and other wildlife, gathered plants, and caught fish, mussels, abalone, and shellfish. Several of their village sites have been identified and preserved.

Monterey was first seen by Europeans when Portuguese explorer Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo spotted La Bahia de los Pinos (Bay of Pines) in 1542 on a journey in search of riches in the New World. But high winds prevented him and his crew from landing. In 1602, Spanish explorer Don Sebastian Viscaino officially named the port in honor of Spain's Count of Monte Rey under whose order he was sailing. Viscaino's 200 men gave thanks for their safe journey in a ceremony held under a large oak tree overlooking the bay.

In 1770, an expedition by land and sea brought Gaspar de Portol and Franciscan Father Junipero Serra to Monterey. There they established the Mission and Presidio (military post) of San Carlos de Borromeo de Monterey, and the City of Monterey. Under the same oak tree where Viscaino's crew members had prayed, Father Serra said mass for his brave group. A year later, in 1771, Father Serra moved the mission to nearby Carmel, which offered a better agricultural and political environment; the Presidio Church in Monterey, however, continued in use.

Becomes Capital of Spanish California

In 1776, Spain named Monterey the capital of Baja (lower) and Alta (upper) California. This same year, Captain Juan Bautista de Anza arrived with the first settlers for Spanish California, most of them bound for San Francisco. For decades, Monterey's soldiers and their wives lived at the Presidio. In 1818, Argentinean revolutionary Hippolyte Bouchard sacked the town in an effort to destroy Spain's presence in California. Soon the residents began to expand outside the Presidio, creating homesteads throughout Monterey.

In April 1822, when Mexico gained its independence from Spain, Monterey became the Mexican capital. California soon pledged its loyalty to the Mexican government.

Spain had not allowed foreigners to trade with California, but Mexico opened up the area to international trade, and Monterey was made California's sole port of entry. Traffic with English and American vessels for the hide and tallow trade became an important part of the economy. A dried steer hide valued at about a dollar was termed a "California bank note." The hides were shipped to New England, where they were used to make saddles, harnesses, and shoes. Tallow was melted down in large rendering pots and poured into bags of hides or bladders to be delivered to the trading ships; in the end, most of the tallow was made into candles.

By 1827, foreign trade had become very important and a custom house was built in Monterey. The booming trade, especially with New England, attracted a number of Americanscalled "Yanquis"to Monterey. Many of them married into Mexican families and became Mexican citizens. In the mid-1830s, Mexican rulers redistributed much of the local land formerly run by the Catholic Church and huge cattle ranches were formed. An elite class of landed "Californios" grew up in the area. In 1842, the U.S. government sent Thomas Larkin to Monterey to head the first American consulate in California.

Statehood Attained

In July 1846 Commodore John Drake Sloat's flagship arrived in Monterey Bay and his troops raised the American flag, claiming the region for the United States, and gaining the territory without a fight from the Mexicans. American occupation continued until the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in 1848, making all of Alta California part of the United States. This included the land now known as California, Utah, Nevada, and parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

In Monterey, U.S. Naval Chaplain Walter Colton was appointed to serve as Monterey's first American Alcalde, a position defined as mayor and judge. Colton, a well-educated and just man, was considered well qualified to hold this important position. In 1846, he and Robert Semple established California's first newspaper, The Californian. Colton also designed and supervised the construction of the first public structure built under the American flag, Colton Hall, which served as a public school and town meeting hall.

In 1849, delegates from throughout Alta California met in Colton Hall in Monterey to create a constitution for the people of the new U.S. territory. The new constitution was signed on October 13, 1849. In 1850, the U.S. Congress voted to adopt California as the thirty-first state of the Union. San Jose was chosen as the seat for the first legislature. (The official definition of a state capital is where the legislature sits; therefore Monterey never was the state capital.)

During the next decade Monterey lost much of its political influence. But at the same time it was becoming an important center for the whaling industry. Asian and European fishermen began arriving there, drawn by the developing fishing industry. Influences from these Japanese, Chinese, Portuguese, and Italian immigrants formed a basis for the city's culture that lives on to today.

Serves as County Seat; Sardine Trade Develops

After California gained its statehood, the legislature formed counties. Monterey served as the Monterey County seat of government until 1873, when Salinas was named to that role. Further transformation of Monterey took place in the 1870s when the first railroad was built, connecting the quiet fishing town with cosmopolitan San Francisco and cities beyond. In the 1880s, the local whaling industry disappeared and civic leaders turned to tourism to revive the local economy. By the mid-1880s, tourism flourished in the area, with thousands flocking to the seaside resort annually.

By the 1920s, the sardine market had grown greatly and the section of Monterey known as Cannery Row was established. During the next two decades, a score of canneries and reduction plants grew up in the area. Workers processed an estimated 250,000 tons of sardines each year. Monterey became known as the "Sardine Capital of the World." The rough and rollicking vicinity of Cannery Row was made famous in the John Steinbeck novels Cannery Row and Sweet Thursday.

Abandoned Warehouses Revitalized; Tourism Grows

In the 1940s, for reasons still in dispute, the sardine population began a rapid decline. Theories explaining the sardines' disappearance range from water pollution to a change in currents to warmer climates or just being "fished out." The once-thriving Cannery Row soon became a ghost town of empty warehouses.

In the second half of the twentieth century, tourism once again gained importance and the old abandoned warehouses were converted into shops, restaurants, and galleries. Today, tourism has become the number one industry in Monterey, growing out of the city's efforts to preserve its historic and natural resources. Monterey has gained a reputation for excellence in environmental protection and this has served to enhance its visitor industry. Visitors flock to the seaside town of Monterey to capture a glimpse of the city's past and enjoy the sounds and sights it has to offer.

Historical Information: Monterey County Historical Society, PO Box 3576, Salinas, CA 93912; telephone (831)757-8085

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: History." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: History." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-history

"Monterey: History." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-history

Monterey: Education and Research

Monterey: Education and Research

Elementary and Secondary Schools

The Monterey Peninsula Unified School District encompasses Monterey City schools as well as those of Marina, Fort Ord, Sand City, Seaside, and Del Rey Oaks. In addition to a well-rounded curriculum, the schools offer a gifted and talented program (GATE) for fourth and fifth grade students and an independent study program for motivated students who wish to study on their own.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Monterey public school system as of the 20022003 school year.

Total enrollment: 12,312

Number of facilities

elementary schools: 13

junior high/middle schools: 4

senior high schools: 2

other: 4

Student/teacher ratio: 20.9:1

Teacher salaries (2004-2005)

minimum: $34,186

maximum: $68,022

Funding per pupil: $7,994

Monterey is also home to several religious schools and to the York School associated with the Episcopal faith, Santa Catalina School (Catholic school for girls), and Possibility House, a Montessori pre-school.

Public Schools Information: Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, 700 Pacific St., Monterey CA 93940-5730; telephone (831)645-1200

Colleges and Universities

Monterey's major institution of higher learning is Monterey Peninsula College. The college offers courses to prepare students for transfer to four-year institutions, to prepare for the workplace, to update work skills or prepare for a new career, to gain a general education, and to improve basic skills in mathematics, reading, writing, and science.

The Monterey Institute of International Studies offers graduate programs in international business, a graduate school of language and educational linguistics, a graduate school of translation and interpretation, and a graduate school of international policy studies. Other Institute programs are language intensives, an intensive English as a Second Language program, and court and medical interpreting. The school also offers tailored courses for individuals requiring intensive language and cultural training for work outside their native country or with foreign nationals in the United States.

The Naval Postgraduate School is an academic institution whose emphasis is on study and research programs relevant to the U.S. Navy's interests, as well as to the interests of other arms of the Department of Defense. Its campus houses state-of-the-art laboratories, academic buildings, a library, government housing, and recreational facilities to serve its nearly 1,500 students. The student body consists of officers from the five U.S. uniformed services, officers from approximately 30 other countries, and a small number of civilian employees. The school offers master of arts degrees in national security affairs, master of science degrees in a wide variety of fields, and bachelor's and doctoral degrees in various engineering fields. Another educational institution associated with the military is the Defense Language Institute operated by the Army. Its Foreign Language Center, located on the Presidio of Monterey, is the world's largest language institute.

Golden Gate University's Monterey Bay Campus offers undergraduate and graduate degree programs in business, public administration, health care, and technology. The Orange County-based Chapman University maintains a Monterey campus which offers baccalaureate degrees in a variety of subjects. California State University's Monterey Bay campus on the grounds of Fort Ord offers 12 undergraduate programs to approximately 3,500 students.

Libraries and Research Centers

Monterey Public Library is the largest public library on the Monterey Peninsula. The library houses more than 120,000 volumes, video and audio cassettes, and CDs, subscribes to 375 magazines and newspapers, and operates one bookmobile. The California History Room contains a unique collection of books, selected magazine and newspaper articles, maps, government documents, photographs, and archival material about the city of Monterey and the Monterey Peninsula. Additional library programs and collections include the Local History Partners, which provides access to local history materials through a partnership with the Colton Hall Museum, the Monterey History and Art Association, and the Teen Zone and Youth Services collections.

Other local libraries include the Colton Hall Museum Library, the CTB McGraw-Hill Library, the Maritime Museum of Monterey Library, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Library, the Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula Medical Library, The Monterey County Herald Library, and the U.S. Navy Library. College libraries are housed at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, the Naval Postgraduate School, and Monterey Bay Peninsula College.

Local research institutes include the Monterey Institute of International Studies' Center for East Asian Studies, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, and Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies. The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's research program focuses on deep-sea exploration in Monterey Bay, one of the most biologically diverse bodies of water in the world. The Institute's two research vessels and remotely-operated vehicles provide access to the Monterey Canyon, an underwater canyon two miles deep. The Naval Research Laboratory is the Navy and Marine Corps' corporate research lab. The lab conducts research on the atmosphere, develops weather interpretation systems for the Department of Defense, and studies the effects of the atmosphere on Naval weapons systems.

Public Library Information: Monterey Public Library, 625 Pacific St., Monterey, CA 93940; telephone (831)646-3932; fax (831)646-5618

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: Education and Research." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: Education and Research." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-education-and-research

"Monterey: Education and Research." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-education-and-research

Monterey: Communications

Monterey: Communications

Newspapers and Magazines

Monterey's local daily newspaper is The Monterey County Herald. Monterey County Weekly covers news, art and entertainment. Journals published in the city include Mortuary Management and Your World of Birds. Also published locally is Spudman Magazine, which is devoted to potato growing.

Television and Radio

Monterey is home to one commercial television station, one cable service provider, and three FM stations.

Media Information: The Monterey County Herald, 8 Upper Ragsdale Drive, Monterey CA 93940-5730; telephone (831)372-3311

Monterey Online

California Coastal Rural Development Corporation. Available www.calcoastal.org

City of Monterey home page. Available www.monterey.org

Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula. Available www.chomp.org

Monterey Conference Center. Available www.monterey.org/mcc

Monterey Convention Authority. Available www.monterey conventionauthority.com

Monterey Convention & Visitors Bureau. Available www.monterey.com

The Monterey County Herald. Available www.monterey herald.com

Monterey County Historical Society. Available users.dedot.com/mchs

Monterey Jazz Festival. Available www.montereyjazz festival.org

Monterey Peninsula Chamber of Commerce. Available www.mpcc.com

Monterey Peninsula Unified School District. Available www.mpusd.k12.ca.us

Monterey Public Library. Available www.monterey.org/library

Selected Bibliography

Benson, Jackson J., True Adventures of John Steinbeck, Writer: A Biography (New York: Penguin Books, 1990)

Fink, Augusta, Monterey: The Presence of the Past (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1972)

Fisher, Anne B., No More a Stranger (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1946)

Ford, Tirey Lafayette, Dawn and the Dons: The Romance of Monterey, with Vignettes and Sketches by Jo Mora (San Francisco: A.M. Robertson, 1926)

Hobbs, Fredric, The Spirit of the Monterey Coast (Palo Alto, CA: Tioga Pub., 1995)

Jeffers, Robinson, Selected Poems (New York: Vintage, 1965)

Reinstedt, Randall A., Ghosts, Bandits, and Legends of Old Monterey (Carmel, CA: Ghost Town Publications, 1974)

Steinbeck, John, Cannery Row (New York: Viking, 1945)

Steinbeck, John, Tortilla Flat (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1935)

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: Communications." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: Communications." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-communications

"Monterey: Communications." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-communications

Monterey: Population Profile

Monterey: Population Profile

Metropolitan Area Residents

1980: 290,000

1990: 355,660

2000: 410,762

2003 estimate: 415,800

Percent change, 19902000: 13%

U.S. rank in 1990: 102nd (PMSA)

U.S. rank in 2000: 103rd (MSA)

City Residents

1980: 27,558

1990: 31,954

2000: 29,674

2003 estimate: 29,960

Percent change, 19902000: -8.9%

U.S. rank in 1980: Not reported

U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported

U.S. rank in 2000: Not reported (State rank: 237th)

Density: 3,516.9 people per square mile (2000)

Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)

White: 23,985

Black or African American: 749

American Indian and Alaska Native: 170

Asian: 2,205

Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander: 86

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 3,222

Other: 1,603

Percent of residents born in state: 41.6% (2000)

Age characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 1,477

Population 5 to 9 years old: 1,421

Population 10 to 14 years old: 1,263

Population 15 to 19 years old: 1,961

Population 20 to 24 years old: 2,695

Population 25 to 34 years old: 5,382

Population 35 to 44 years old: 4,638

Population 45 to 54 years old: 4,031

Population 55 to 59 years old: 1,279

Population 60 to 64 years old: 1,117

Population 65 to 74 years old: 1,974

Population 75 to 84 years old: 1,699

Population 85 years and older: 737

Median age: 36.1 years

Births (Monterey County, 2001)

Total number: 7,176

Deaths (Monterey County, 2001)

Total number: 2,470 (of which, 39 were infants under the age of 1 year)

Money income (1999)

Per capita income: $27,133

Median household income: $49,109

Total households: 12,656

Number of households with income of . . .

less than $10,000: 887

$10,000 to $14,999: 621

$15,000 to $24,999: 1,262

$25,000 to $34,999: 1,431

$35,000 to $49,999: 2,261

$50,000 to $74,999: 2,865

$75,000 to $99,999: 1,403

$100,000 to $149,999: 1,307

$150,000 to $199,999: 304

$200,000 or more: 315

Percent of families below poverty level: 4.4% (46.3% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 1,369

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: Population Profile." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: Population Profile." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-population-profile

"Monterey: Population Profile." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-population-profile

Monterey: Convention Facilities

Monterey: Convention Facilities

Convention activity in Monterey is heaviest from early April through Thanksgiving. The Monterey Conference Center, with 58,000 square feet of meeting space, a 19,600-square-foot exhibit hall, a 1200-seat ballroom, and a 494-seat theater, hosts more than 220 events annually.

The Monterey Meeting Connection, located in the heart of the city's historic district and adjoining Fisherman's Wharf, is an alliance of the Monterey Conference Center and its adjoining hotelsthe Portola Plaza, the Monterey Marriott, and the Hotel Pacific. The Connection features 800 guest rooms and suites, an amphitheater, and 61,000 square feet of flexible function space. Other hotels that offer a variety of spaces for meetings are the Hyatt Regency Monterey, Hilton Monterey, Monterey Plaza Hotel and Spa, Casa Munras Garden Hotel, and the Monterey Beach Resort. A variety of other facilities also feature spaces for large functions including Adventures by the Sea, Alexander Julien Wine Estate, Culinary Center of Monterey, and the Monterey Bay Aquarium.

Convention Information: Monterey Conference Center, One Portola Plaza, Monterey, CA 93940; telephone (831)646-3370; fax (831)646-3777. Monterey County Convention & Visitors Bureau, 150 Olivier St., PO Box 1770, Monterey, CA 93942-1770; telephone (831)649-1770; toll-free (888)221-1010. Monterey Convention Authority, 380 Alvarado St., Suite 201, Monterey, CA 93940; telephone (831)646-3388; toll-free (888)742-8091

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: Convention Facilities." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: Convention Facilities." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-convention-facilities

"Monterey: Convention Facilities." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-convention-facilities

Monterey: Transportation

Monterey: Transportation

Approaching the City

Direct access to Monterey is provided from San Jose and San Francisco via Highway 156 off State Route 101. Access from Los Angeles is achieved via State Route 101 and Highway 68. Monterey Peninsula Airport, 3.5 miles from downtown Monterey, provides passenger service from Monterey with non-stop flights to Los Angeles, San Francisco and Phoenix, with connections to 200 domestic and foreign locations. Airlines serving Monterey include American/American Eagle, United/United Express, and America West/America Express. Five major car rental companies operate from the airport. Monterey Salinas Transit buses (Route 21) also service the airport.

The Monterey-Salinas Airbus provides 11 trips daily to the San Jose and San Francisco international airports from downtown Monterey. Pick up service is available from hotels and private homes. Greyhound Lines offers regular bus service to northern and southern California.

Traveling in the City

Five taxi companies operate in Monterey County. The Monterey-Salinas Transit (MST) operates 84 buses on 32 routes, and covers the Monterey Peninsula and Salinas Valley. MST provides rural transit service to Carmel Valley and seasonal service to Big Sur. Its Waterfront Area Visitors Express (WAVE) Shuttle Service provides low-cost transportation to the Monterey Bay Aquarium and other waterfront areas.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: Transportation." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: Transportation." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-transportation

"Monterey: Transportation." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-transportation

Monterey

Monterey

Monterey: Introduction
Monterey: Geography and Climate
Monterey: History
Monterey: Population Profile
Monterey: Municipal Government
Monterey: Economy
Monterey: Education and Research
Monterey: Health Care
Monterey: Recreation
Monterey: Convention Facilities
Monterey: Transportation
Monterey: Communications

The City in Brief

Founded: 1770 (incorporated, 1850)

Head Official: Mayor Dan Albert (since 1986)

City Population

1980: 27,558

1990: 31,954

2000: 29,674

2003 estimate: 29,960

Percent change, 19902000: -8.9%

U.S. rank in 1980: Not reported

U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported

U.S. rank in 2000: Not reported (State rank: 237th)

Metropolitan Area Population (PMSA)

1980: 290,000

1990: 355,660

2000: 410,762

2003 estimate: 415,800

Percent change, 19902000: 13%

U.S. rank in 1990: 102nd (PMSA)

U.S. rank in 2000: 103rd (MSA)

Area: 8.44 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 10 feet above sea level

Average Annual Temperature: 57° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 19.29 inches

Major Economic Sectors: Services, trade, government

Unemployment Rate: 12.9% (December 2004)

Per Capita Income: $27,133 (1999)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 1,369

Major Colleges and Universities: Monterey Peninsula College, Monterey Institute of International Studies

Daily Newspaper: The Monterey County Herald

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey

"Monterey." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey

Monterey

Monterey (mŏntərā´), city (1990 pop. 31,954), Monterey co., W Calif., a port on Monterey Bay; founded 1770, inc. 1850. It is a popular resort, the home of many artists and writers, and one of California's oldest cities. An early whaling and fishing center, Monterey now depends on tourism and the revenues and employment derived from nearby military installations. There is also light manufacturing.

The bay was visited by Juan Cabrillo in 1542 and entered and named by Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602. In 1770 an expedition under Gaspar de Portolá arrived and established a presidio; Junípero Serra remained to found a Franciscan mission. Monterey was the capital of Alta California for many of the years between 1775 and 1846. In 1846 it was taken by a U.S. naval force under Commodore John D. Sloat, and in 1849 the state constitutional convention met there.

California's first theater (1844) and first brick building (1847) still stand, and it was in Monterey that California's first newspaper was established in 1846. The city has museums, the presidio, and an aquarium with an unusual deep-sea exhibit. The Monterey Institute of International Studies, the Naval Postgraduate School, and the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center are there.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey

"Monterey." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey

Monterey: Geography and Climate

Monterey: Geography and Climate

Monterey is located on the Monterey Peninsula, which is 120 miles south of San Francisco, 60 miles south of San Jose, and 345 miles north of Los Angeles. The peninsula is bordered by Monterey Bay to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and Carmel Bay to the south.

Although characterized by cool, dry summers and wet winters, the regions of Monterey County exhibit considerable climatic diversity. The warmest months are July through October, and the rainiest are November and April. Summer months often can be foggy, especially early and late in the day, due to the chilly and unchanging water temperatures of the Pacific Ocean.

Area: 8.44 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 10 feet above sea level

Average Temperatures: January, 53° F; July, 60° F; annual average, 57° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 19.29 inches

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: Geography and Climate." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: Geography and Climate." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-geography-and-climate

"Monterey: Geography and Climate." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-geography-and-climate

Monterey: Municipal Government

Monterey: Municipal Government

Monterey operates with a council-city manager form of government. The policymaking branch of the city government, the city council, consists of five members: the mayor, elected to a two-year term, and four council members, elected to four-year terms. The city manager, appointed by the council, serves as the city's professional administrator.

Head Official: Mayor Dan Albert (since 1986; current term expires November 2006)

Total Number of City Employees: 464 (full and part-time) (2005)

City Information: Mayor's Office, City of Monterey, 340 Tyler St., Monterey, CA 93940-2487; telephone (831)646-3760

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: Municipal Government." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: Municipal Government." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-municipal-government

"Monterey: Municipal Government." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-municipal-government

Monterey: Health Care

Monterey: Health Care

Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula is a nonprofit system serving the Monterey Peninsula and surrounding communities with 17 locations that include outpatient facilities, satellite laboratories, mental health clinics, Breast Care Center, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Family Birth Center, Sleep Disorders Center, and two hospice facilities. The 172-bed Natividad Medical Center, an acute care hospital in nearby Salinas, is owned and operated by Monterey county and is affiliated with the University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: Health Care." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: Health Care." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-health-care

"Monterey: Health Care." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-health-care

Monterey: Introduction

Monterey: Introduction

Monterey, the largest city on the Monterey Peninsula, is a beautiful seaside community with a vast array of recreational and cultural activities. Bustling with fashionable restaurants, shops, and nightspots, Monterey has preserved more of its history than any other California city. Once the capital of the Spanish territory of California, Monterey has restored its historic buildings and Spanish adobes, and displays these treasures on the magnificent crescent of blue water that is Monterey Bay.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Monterey: Introduction." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Monterey: Introduction." Cities of the United States. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-introduction

"Monterey: Introduction." Cities of the United States. . Retrieved May 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/monterey-introduction