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Astoria

ASTORIA

ASTORIA. John Jacob Astor dreamed of an organized continent-wide fur trade well before American occupation of the upper Missouri country. To his American Fur Company, chartered in 1808, he added the Pacific Fur Company, organized in 1810, and proceeded to extend his organization from Saint Louis, Missouri, to the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon. Astor's company sent two expeditions to Oregon: one by sea, and one along the route of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The seagoing party, under Capt. Jonathan Thorn, embarked 6 September 1810 in the Tonquin and, after a stormy voyage, reached the Columbia on 23 March 1811. Within three weeks, Astoria was established under the direction of Duncan McDougal, acting resident agent. In June, Capt. Thorn and a trading party clashed with local Indians in Nootka Sound, resulting in the death of Thorn's entire party and a number of Indians.

On 15 July 1811 a party of Canadians, sent by the rival North West Company to forestall the Americans, arrived at Astoria. In January 1812, a second party came from the North West Company post on the Spokane River. Then came the Astor Overlanders (the group traveling by land), thirty-four in number. They had left Saint Louis on 12 March 1811 under the leadership of Wilson Price Hunt and had traveled up the Missouri River and westward through the country of the Crow Indians, over the Continental Divide to the Snake River, then to the Columbia and the Pacific, where they arrived 15 February 1812. In May an Astor ship, the Beaver, arrived. Company representatives extended their activities inland to the mouth of the Okanagan, to the Spokane, and to the Snake rivers. Robert Stuart and a small party of eastbound Astor Overlanders set out with dispatches for Astor in New York on 29 June 1812. They ascended the Snake River to its head, became the first white men to cross the South Pass, wintered on the Platte River, and arrived in Saint Louis on 30 April 1813. They never returned to the West, for news of the War of 1812 sounded the doom of the Astor enterprise. On 23 October 1813, while Hunt was absent, McDougal and his associates, whose sympathies were with the British, sold all the Astor interests on the Columbia to the North West Company. Hunt returned to find Astoria in rival hands, the post renamed Fort George, and the British flag flying. The Treaty of Ghent restored Astoria to the United States in 1818.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Mackie, Richard S. Trading beyond the Mountains: The British Fur Trade on the Pacific, 1793–1843. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, 1997.

Wishart, David J. The Fur Trade of the American West, 1807–1840: A Geographical Synthesis. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979.

Carl P.Russell/c. w.

See alsoFur Companies ; Fur Trade and Trapping ; Ghent, Treaty of .

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"Astoria." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Astoria." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/astoria

"Astoria." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/astoria

Astoria

Astoria (ăstôr´ēə). 1 Commercial, industrial, and residential section of NW Queens borough of New York City, SE N.Y.; settled in the 17th cent. as Hallet's Cove. It was renamed for John Jacob Astor in 1839. It is an industrial and residential section and has the largest population of Greek-Americans in the United States. Several 18th-century houses remain.

2 City (1990 pop. 10,069), seat of Clatsop co., NW Oreg., on the Columbia River estuary; inc. 1876. A port of entry, Astoria is the trading center for the lower Columbia basin. The city's traditional industries—fishing, fish processing, and lumbering—largely have given way to tourism and light manufacturing. Points of interest include the Astoria Column, 125 ft (38 m) high, built in 1926 to commemorate the region's early history, and the Columbia River Maritime Museum.

The Lewis and Clark expedition spent the winter of 1805–6 at a nearby encampment, Fort Clatsop (now part of a national historical park). Fort Astoria, a fur-trading post established in 1811 by John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur Company, was the first permanent U.S. settlement on the Pacific coast. Although the post was sold to the British in 1813, its vigorous activities helped to establish American claims to the Oregon country and contributed much to the exploration of the continent. Fort Astoria was formally restored to the United States in 1818, but trade remained in British hands until the mid-1840s, when American pioneers followed the Oregon Trail to the fort. In the late 18th cent., Astoria grew as a coastal and river port; it later attracted Scandinavian settlers.

See P. Stark, Astoria (2014).

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"Astoria." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Astoria." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/astoria