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Gibraltar

Gibraltar (jĬbrôl´tər), British overseas territory (2005 est. pop. 27,900), 2.5 sq mi (6.5 sq km), on a narrow, rocky peninsula extending into the Mediterranean Sea from SW Spain. Most of the peninsula is occupied by the Rock of Gibraltar (Lat. Calpe), one of the Pillars of Hercules, which guards the northeastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar, linking the Mediterranean with the Atlantic. The town of Gibraltar lies at the northwest end of the Rock of Gibraltar. The peninsula is connected with the mainland by a low sandy area of neutral ground. West of the peninsula is the Bay of Gibraltar, an inlet of the strait. There is a safe enclosed harbor of 440 acres (178 hectares). The rock, of Jurassic limestone, contains caves in which valuable archaeological finds have been made. It is honeycombed by defense works and arsenals, which are largely concealed. A tunnel bisects the rock from east to west.

During the many years that Gibraltar was a British fortress, most of the area was taken up by military installations, and the civilian population was kept small. Many of the laborers lived in the Spanish border town of La Línea. The population now consists of people of Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, and North African descent. More than three quarters of the population is Roman Catholic; there are Protestant, Muslim, and Jewish minorities. English is the official language, and Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese are spoken.

The town is a free port, with some transit trade. Financial services, shipping, and duty-free shopping are economically important, and Gibraltar is also an online gambling center. The climate is mild and pleasant, and tourism is also a significant industry. Gibralter must import most of its fuel, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs.

Gibraltar is governed under the constitution of 1969. The monarch of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, represented by a governor, is the head of state. The chief minister, who is the head of government, is appointed by the governor with the approval of the House of Assembly. Of the 18 members of the unicameral House of Assembly, 15 are elected by popular vote and three are appointed; all serve four-year terms. Gibraltar is largely self-governing.

History

The name Gibraltar derives from the Arabic Jabal-al-Tarik [mount of Tarik], dating from the capture (711) of the peninsula by the Moorish leader Tarik. The Spanish Held the peninsula (1309–33) but did not definitively recover it from the Moors until 1462. The English have maintained possession since 1704 despite continual Spanish claims. The British post was besieged unsuccessfully by the Spanish and French (1704), by the Spanish (1726), and again by the Spanish and French (1779–83).

In World War I, Gibraltar served as a naval station. Many refugees fled there in the Spanish civil war (1936–39). In World War II its fortifications were strengthened, and most of the civilian population was evacuated. It was frequently bombed in 1940–41, but not seriously damaged.

After the war Spain renewed claims to Gibraltar, which, as a British strategic air and naval base, continued to be a major source of friction between Britain and Spain. The residents affirmed (1967) their ties with Britain in a UN-supervised referendum, and in 1981 all residents were granted full British citizenship. From 1969 to 1985, Spain closed its border with Gibraltar, although pedestrian traffic was again permitted across beginning in 1982.

In 1991, Britain removed its military forces from Gibraltar, while retaining it as a dependency. Tensions between Spain and Gibraltar continued through the 1990s, however, as Spain accused Gibraltar of being a hotbed of drug trafficking, tobacco smuggling, money laundering, and tax evasion. A 1997 Spanish proposal for joint British-Spanish sovereignty was rejected by the Gibraltarian government, and a referendum in 2002 on shared British-Spanish sovereignty almost unanimously approved of that rejection. In 2006 Gibraltar, Spain, and Britain signed an agreement intended to ease crossing the Spanish border and traveling by air to Gibraltar and to improve telephone service in Gibraltar. The same year a new constitution for the colony was approved that increased its government's autonomy. A dispute over fishing grounds led to new tensions in 2013.

Bibliography

See studies by H. S. Levie (1983) and G. J. Shields (1987).

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar

Basic Data

Official Country Name: Gibraltar
Region (Map name): Europe
Population: 29,481
Language(s): English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Russian
Literacy rate: 80%

Located at the tip of the Iberian Peninsula, the limestone rock outcropping that is Gibraltar stretches nearly to Africa and serves as a gateway to the Mediterranean. Gibraltar's media community enjoys a high degree of freedom and independence.

The city's most important newspaper is the Gibraltar Chronicle, which publishes daily Monday through Saturday in print and online. Established in 1801, the independent publication is one of the oldest daily newspapers in the world in continuous production. Its approximate circulation is 4,500. The weekly newspaper Panorama has appeared Mondays since 1975, but it also runs a daily online edition which was founded in 1997. Both print and Web editions cover local and international news. Vox, founded in 1955, is a weekly bilingual newspaper appearing every Friday in both Spanish and English.

There are five radio stations, one AM and four FM, serving 37,000 radios. One television station broadcasts to 10,000 televisions. There are two Internet service providers.

Gibraltar belonged to Spain until 1713, when it was ceded to Britain in the Treaty of Utrect. It has remained a sore spot ever since. In 1967, Gibraltarians chose to remain a British dependency, and Spain closed its border with the country between 1967 and 1985.

However, in 2000 Britain and Spain finally reached an agreement over the area's administrative status. Gibraltar's head of state is the British monarch, who is represented locally by a London-appointed governor and commander in chief. Heading the government and the unicameral, 18-member House of Assembly is a chief minister. The Governor does not actively participate in the government but does approve all legislation.

The population of Gibraltar is approximately 30,000, and the literacy rate is 80 percent. English is the official language, but Spanish is also widely spoken. Because of its location, Gibraltar is an international conference center and boasts an extensive shipping trade. Accordingly, it garners significant income from offshore banking, tourism, and shipping service fees. British military presence also contributes to the economy, although its percentage of the gross national product is declining.

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). World Fact Book 2001. 2001. Available from www.cia.gov.

Gibraltar Chronicle home page. 2002. Available from www.chronicle.gi.

Government of Gibraltar Information Services. 2001. Available from www.gibraltar.gov.gi.

Panorama home page. 2002. Available from www.panorama.gi.

Worldinformation.com. 2002. Available from www.worldinformation.com.

Jenny B. Davis

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar

Basic Data
Official Country Name: Gibraltar
Region: Europe
Population: 29,481
Language(s): English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Russian
Literacy Rate: 80%


A British overseas territory since being ceded by Spain in 1713, Gibraltar carries on a peculiar existence sandwiched between the Iberian Peninsula and the mouth of the Mediterranean. English is the official language in the government and the schools, while Spanish remains the language frequently used within most homes. As is the case in much territory with a history of British influence, Gibraltar offers free and compulsory education for citizens aged 5 to 15. This education is provided to the bulk of the nation's 4,000 students by way of 14 schools.

The Gibraltar public school system includes three levels of schools, the first two of which are co-educational. These levels are termed first schools, for ages 5 to 8; middle schools, for ages 8 to 12; and secondary schools, for students age 12 through completion. Although English is the official language of instruction, Spanish is introduced into the curriculum during middle school. Other core subjects required of all students include mathematics, science, English, physical education, and religious education. Religious education varies among the schools with Anglican, Catholic, and Hebrew schools presently functioning.

The nation also supports a technical College of Further Education that grew out of a Royal Navy technical school. With no local higher education facilities, Gibraltar offers scholarships and grants for students seeking university education in Britain.

The constitution charges the minister for education, an elected representative, with responsibility for education in Gibraltar. Managerial oversight is provided through the Department of Education and Training and its director. The department creates and applies the prescribed National Curriculum Regulations, which are modeled closely on the United Kingdom National Curriculum.


Mark Browning

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar. At the southern tip of Spain, with an area of 2½ square miles and 1,270 feet at its highest point, ‘The Rock’ commands the western entrance to the Mediterranean. The name derives from Djebel Tarik (Mountain of Tarik) after Tarik ibn Ziyad, the general leading the Moorish invasion of Spain in 711. Gibraltar was subject to numerous sieges as Christian rulers attempted to eject the Moors. Finally, in 1462 it was recaptured and became the evacuation point for Jews and Moors expelled from Spain. Queen Isabella of Spain in the 16th cent. laid it as a solemn charge in her will that her successors retain and hold the city. For almost 200 years few people, apart from privateers, showed much interest in Gibraltar until in 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, it was captured by an Anglo-Dutch fleet under Sir George Rooke and ceded to Britain by the treaty of Utrecht (1713). It has remained in British hands ever since. During the Great Siege of 1779–83, the garrison under General Elliott ( Lord Heathfield) resisted all attempts to bombard or starve them out. During the Second World War, fighting in north Africa and Italy gave Gibraltar a crucial role. Spain resumed pressure after the war ended but in a referendum of 1967 the colony voted to retain its connection with Britain. Spain closed the border for sixteen years from 1969 and the Rock remains a bone of contention.

June Cochrane

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GIBRALTAR

GIBRALTAR, also the Rock of Gibraltar or informally the Rock. A British colony and military base, a rugged peninsula on the south-west coast of Spain where Atlantic and Mediterranean meet as the Strait(s) of Gibraltar. Languages: English (official), SPANISH widely spoken. The territory was ceded by Spain to Britain in 1713, and became a colony in 1830. Spain disputes right of possession, but Gibraltarians generally regard themselves as British. The local English is non-rhotic. Standard English with an RP accent is the prestigious norm, while the speech of manual workers is influenced by Spanish, including a parasitic vowel before a word-initial cluster beginning with /s/, such as ‘espoon’ for spoon and ‘estreet’ for street. Compare MALTA.

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar British crown colony, a rocky peninsula on the s coast of Spain. The Muslim conquest of Spain began in 711, and Gibraltar remained Moorish property until 1462. In 1704, an Anglo-Dutch fleet captured the Rock, and Spain ceded it to Britain in the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). A Spanish siege (1769–83) caused great destruction. In 1830 Gibraltar became a British Crown Colony. In a 1967 referendum, the islanders rejected Spanish sovereignty, and in 1969 Gibraltar gained self-government. In 2002, Gibraltarians resisted a proposal for joint sovereignty. Industries: tourism, petroleum re-exportation. Area: 6.5sq km (2.5sq mi). Pop. (2002 est.) 29,300.

http://www.gibraltar.gi

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar

Culture Name

Gibraltarian

Alternative Names

Yanito (self-name), Llanito, Gibraltareño

Orientation

Identification. The name "Gibraltar" derives from "Tariks Mountain," after Tariq-Ibn-Zayid, the Muslim conqueror who invaded the Iberian peninsula in 711. Although Gibraltar is a multiethnic and a multireligious society, its citizens identify themselves as having a common culture based on common history and territoriality, intermarriage, mutual tolerance, and their status as British colonial subjects.

Location and Geography. Gibraltar is a tiny territory of 4 square miles (6.5 square kilometers) at the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula. The territory consists mainly of rock.

Demography. Among the thirty thousand inhabitants, about twenty-five thousand have the status of British Gibraltarians, two thousand are other British citizens (mainly military), and two thousand are Moroccan workers. There are some Indian and Pakistani workers and about one hundred Russian citizens.

Linguistic Affiliation. The official language is English. Locally, Yanito, an Andalusian-based creole language with many English, Italian, Hebrew, and Maltese words, is spoken. Minority languages include Sindhi and Arabic.

Symbolism. Gibraltarians share a strong sense of unity that is expressed in several cultural symbols: traditional housing arrangements, a common school system, and the Yanito language. A fervent interest in beauty contests is an expression of national identity. Since the early 1990s, much energy has been invested in the creation of national symbolism (the anthem and flag). National Day is celebrated on 10 September to commemorate the pro-British referendum of 1967. The most powerful symbol is the Rock itself, which possesses symbolic meaning in British imperial iconography and is linked to the fortress mentality of Gibraltarians. Like the Rock, the apes of Gibraltar are symbols of British permanence and solidity.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. Gibraltar is a colony, not a nation, yet there is a strong nationalist movement that fights for political self-determination as a part of the United Kingdom or a state within the European Union.

National Identity. Nationalist aspirations are the result of two circumstances: the fight for a non-English-based British identity and opposition toward neighboring Spain, whose territorial claim opposes Gibraltarian self-determination. National identity is not based on an ideology of purity but on positively valuing hybridity and multi-ethnicity.

Ethnic Relations. Gibraltarians include Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Hindu, and a few Muslim citizens. They were linked to the population of the Spanish hinterland through common customs and intensive intermarriage until 1969, when Spain closed the border for thirteen years. Today this kind of common borderland society is almost nonexistent. While the Sephardic Jews have always been an integrated part of Gibraltar, they tend to segregate themselves. By contrast, the Hindu community politically and culturally has integrated more fully. Moroccan workers are largely excluded from civil society.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

Space has always been a problem. Housing is limited by military requirements. Until the military cutback in the 1990s, only 20 percent of the territory was accessible to civilians. Gibraltar's edifices are influenced by British military architecture and by Genoese housing style (also known as "patios"). Until the 1980s, most Gibraltarians lived densely packed in patios. After the opening of the border in 1982, many wealthier citizens purchased houses in the Spanish hinterland. In the 1990s, enough land was reclaimed from the sea to build extensive housing estates.

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. Food is a British-Mediterranean mixture with strong roots in Spanish, Italian, English, and Jewish cuisine. There are no general food taboos within the different religious groups.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Calentita, a chickpea pie of Genoese origin, is the national dish.

Basic Economy. Until recently, the local economy depended on the military economy and smuggling (mainly of tobacco). In the 1980s and early 1990s, the economy underwent a heavy transformation and now is based on tourism, the harbor and shipping facilities, and the financial offshore sector. The principal exports are petroleum and manufactured goods. The major trading partners are the United Kingdom, Morocco, Portugal, the Netherlands, Spain, the United States, and Germany. The national currency is the Gibraltar pound.

Land Tenure and Property. Land has been largely in the hands of the British government (92 percent of land and housing in the 1960s). Between 1985 and 1996, 296,663 acres (20.5 percent of the territory) were handed over to the local government. Many Gibraltarians buy property in Spain.

Commercial Activities. Gibraltar is a duty-free harbor. The major goods sold are tobacco, alcohol, perfume, dairy products, and electronics.

Major Industries. Gibraltar is home to the light-manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral waters, candy, beer, and canned fish. Tourism, banking and finance (mostly off-shore), and construction form the larger areas of manufacture, with Gibraltar's main source of industry its support of large UK naval and air bases.

Division of Labor. After the border was closed in 1969, blue-collar jobs were filled by Moroccan migrant workers who replaced the Spanish workforce. Today many Spaniards work on the Rock as shop assistants or cleaning women. Gibraltarians work mainly in the service sector (trade, financial sector, tourism). About 50 percent of young Gibraltarians obtain their education in British universities.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. The upper strata consist of a few families of Genoese origin. The upper middle class consists of Catholic, Jewish, and Hindu merchants and lawyers. The working class is made up of families of Spanish, Maltese, and Italian origin. The lower strata consists of Hindu shop assistants of Indian or Pakistani nationality and Moroccan workers. During the time of economical transformation (1980s1990s), many unemployed and unskilled youth made a living smuggling.

Symbols of Social Stratification. Proper English pronunciation is a symbol of upward social mobility. Suits and ties are symbols of white-collar jobs. Among youngsters, smuggler-type iconography is highly valued.

Political Life

Government. Gibraltar is a British colony with a local government. The British Crown is represented by a governor. The government is headed by a chief minister and seven ministers who are responsible for most domestic affairs (with the exception of internal security).

Leadership and Political Officials. Politics is strongly influenced by "big men" and a client-based structure based on class but cross-cut by families, personal loyalties, and friendships. The more bourgeois Social Democratic Party forms the government, with socialists and liberals in the opposition. Even though they diverge on domestic affairs and strive for different kinds of links with Britain, all parties strongly reject the Spanish claim to Gibraltar.

Social Problems and Control. The formal mechanisms for dealing with crime are British law, the police system, and the judiciary. Gibraltar can be described as a society of lawyers and trustees. The crime rate is low, and there are strong mechanisms of social control, owing to the small size of the territory and the face-to-face character of its society.

Military Activity. Gibraltar's function as a British military garrison has influenced all aspects of its society. This changed to some extent after the withdrawal of British forces in the 1990s. Today a local regiment of three hundred soldiers is stationed on the Rock.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

Only citizens are entitled to social welfare; this policy excludes Spanish, Moroccan, and Indian workers. To counter the effects of the military cutback, conversion programs partly financed by the European Union have been instituted.

Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations

The colony has many social, economical, sports, and leisure associations, such as the Parents Association, the Clergy Fraternal of Gibraltar, the Bankers Association, the Teachers Association, the Hindu Association, the Gibraltar Business Network, the Students Association, the Association of Accountants, the Woman Association, the Spear Fishing Federation, the Gibraltar Sub Aqua Club, the Association of Trust and Company Managers, GA/JPMS, the Hotel Association, the Chamber of Commerce, TGWU/Acts, the Shipping Association, and the Bar Council. Apart from the nationalist movement Self-Determination For Gibraltar Group (SDGG), nongovernmental organizations are politically unimportant.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. The economy traditionally was gendered, with women keeping the household and men working in dockyards and offices. However, this pattern changed after the closing of the border, when women and Moroccan workers substituted for Spanish workers. Today many women work in the service sector. Women are underrepresented, in political positions, although many women are influential in the informal management of parties. In the field of religion, only Hindu community life is dominated by female specialists.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. Women are still expected to keep out of political life and participate only in social, cultural, and charity affairs. Citizenship is viricentric; the status of being a Gibraltarian can be transferred only through the male line.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Marriage. Marriages usually are not arranged. People marry young (around age 20) and often divorce young. Increasingly within the Jewish community and decreasingly within the Hindu community, there is a trend toward arranged marriages. Gays and lesbians tend to cover their identities and marry. Homosexuality was a legal offense until 1992.

Domestic Unit. Until land reclamation began in the 1990s, housing was a major problem. It was common for couples to share an apartment with their in-laws. The household unit was the extended family.

Kin Groups. As Gibraltar is a face-to-face community, frequent contact between members of larger kin groups is unavoidable, though it is not necessarily intense.

Socialization

Higher Education. Higher education is an avenue for upward mobility. An extensive grant system allows about 50 percent of high school graduates to study in British universities.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. The population consists of Catholics (77 percent), Church of England Protestants (7 percent), Muslims (7 percent), other Christians (3 percent), Jews (2.3 percent), and Hindus (2.1 percent).

Religious Practitioners. All the religious groups have seen a struggle for power and control between traditional and orthodox forces. The authority of the Catholic Church, led by a locally-born bishop, is strong. There are four synagogues and one rabbi. Although a Hindu temple was built in 1995, there are no locally based full-time Hindu specialists. The influence of an esoteric guru, Sri Swatchidananda, is especially strong, but there are also followers of the Radha Soami movement.

Rituals and Holy Places. The Rock itself is ascribed spiritual power by Gibraltarians of all religions. The typical Iberian Catholic celebrations (Easter Week, processions, and pilgrimages) are largely absent. Most holy sites for the Jewish community are located in nearby Morocco.

Medicine and Health Care

Gibraltar has one civilian hospital. Most health care practitioners have a British degree. Historically, the hospital was organized along religious lines with Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish wards.

Secular Celebrations

The most important celebrations are Commonwealth Day (the second Monday in March), Constitution Day on 30 May (commemorates the constitution of 1969), and, National Day on 9 October (celebrates the pro-British referendum in 1967).

The Arts and Humanities

Support for the Arts. Most artists are self-supporting.

Literature. There are several local poets. As a result of a growing self-identity movement, more Gibraltarians have become interested in local history and biographies.

Graphic Arts. John Mackintosh Hall, the local community center, is the main location for exhibitions of local drawings, paintings, and sculpture.

Performance Arts. There are many dance groups, including Indian and Sevillana groups, as well as modeling and beauty contests. There is a local music scene, as well as some theater groups.

The State of the Physical and Social Sciences

Many Gibraltarians are passionate ornithologists.

Bibliography

Benady, Mesod ("Tito"). "The Jewish Community of Gibraltar" In R. D. Barnett and W. M. Schwab, eds., The Western Sephardim: The Sephardi Heritage, vol. II, 1989.

Caruana, Charles. The Rock Under a Cloud, 1989.

Finlayson, Thomas J. The Fortress Came First, 1991.

Haller, Dieter. "Romancing Patios: Die Aneignung der Stadt im Rahmen der ethnischen und nationalen Neubestimmung in Gibraltar" In Kokot, Hengartner, and Wildner, eds., Kulturwissenschaftliche Sichtweisen auf die Stadt, 1999.

Jackson, Sir William G. F. The Rock of the GibraltariansA History of Gibraltar, 1987.

Kramer, Johannes. "Bevölkerung und Sprachen in Gibraltar." Europa Ethnica 42:8896, 1985.

Moyer, Melissa Greer. Analysis of Code Switching in Gibraltar, 1993.

Stanton, Gareth. "Guests in the DockMoroccan Workers on Trial in the Colony of Gibraltar." Critique of Anthropology 11 (4):361379, 1991.

Dieter Haller

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Gibraltar

Gibraltaraorta, daughter, exhorter, exporter, extorter, Horta, importer, mortar, porter, quarter, slaughter, snorter, sorter, sporter, supporter, three-quarter, torte, transporter, underwater, water •altar, alter, assaulter, defaulter, falter, Gibraltar, halter, Malta, palter, psalter, salter, vaulter, Walter •flaunter, haunter, saunter, taunter, vaunter •exhauster, Forster •fraudster • granddaughter •stepdaughter • manslaughter •ripsnorter • pole-vaulter • backwater •headquarter • freshwater •breakwater • rainwater • seawater •dishwater • tidewater • Whitewater •saltwater • rosewater • shearwater •firewater •doubter, grouter, outer, pouter, scouter, shouter, spouter, touter •counter, encounter, mounter •jouster, ouster •revcounter •bloater, boater, Botha, Dakota, doter, emoter, floater, gloater, iota, Kota, Minnesota, motor, promoter, quota, rota, rotor, scoter, voter •bolter, coulter (US colter), Volta •boaster, coaster, poster, roaster, toaster •roadster • oldster •bolster, holster, pollster, soulster, upholster •billposter

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