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Liverpool

Liverpool, created a borough by royal will (1207) as a convenient place of embarkation for Irish campaigns, fluctuated in prosperity until the early 17th cent. when Irish industries developed and Chester declined. Of protestant temper, its value as a point of contact between Ireland and the northern royalists accounted for its importance in the Civil War, being twice besieged. Continuing to control the larger share of the Irish trade, Liverpool gained impetus from profitable commerce with the plantations (sugar, tobacco, cotton) and the rapid development of Manchester's textile industries. Both legitimate and illegitimate trade with the West Indies and South America enabled gain at the expense of Bristol and London, and led traders into the even more lucrative African traffic. Involvement in the slave trade brought riches and an unsavoury reputation, but the money improved transport and communication with productive Lancashire industries. When trade with the East Indies and Spanish America was thrown open and the American midwest began to expand, Liverpool's dominance of Atlantic trade and as an emigration port produced a cosmopolitan but overcrowded, unhealthy, politically corrupt, and turbulent city. Systematic attempts to reconstruct led to generally steady improvement, growth being accompanied by high levels of immigration (especially from Ireland), and continued establishment of new local industries. Despite extensive reconstruction of the business quarters after severe bomb damage in the Second World War, the subsequent de-industrialization of Liverpool has led to its being better known for its football teams, music groups, and comedians, yet it still exerts economic and cultural dominance over the surrounding metropolitan region.

A. S. Hargreaves

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"Liverpool." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Liverpool." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/liverpool

Liverpool

Liverpool, city and metropolitan borough (1991 pop. 448,300), NW England, on the Mersey River near its mouth. It is one of Britain's largest cities. A large center for food processing (especially flour and sugar), Liverpool has a variety of industries, including the manufacture of electrical equipment, chemicals, and rubber. Liverpool was once famous for its pottery, and its textile industry was also prosperous; however, since World War II its cotton market has declined considerably. The city's first wet dock was completed by 1715; at their height, the docks were more than 7 mi (11.3 km) long. Once Britain's greatest port, Liverpool suffered extreme setbacks with the advent of container ships, which it could not handle, and the shift in Great Britain's trade focus from the United States to the European Union. Some of the docklands have been redeveloped as cultural and tourist attractions. The city is connected by tunnel with Birkenhead across the Mersey.

In 1207, King John granted Liverpool its first charter. In 1644, during the English Civil War, Liverpool surrendered to the royalists under Prince Rupert after several sieges. Air raids during World War II caused heavy damage and casualties. The statesman William Gladstone, the artist George Stubbs, and the members of the musical group the Beatles were born in Liverpool.

Liverpool Cathedral, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, was begun in 1904 and completed in 1978. A Roman Catholic cathedral was consecrated in 1967. St. George's Hall is an imposing building in a group that includes libraries and art galleries. The Walker Gallery has a fine collection of Italian and Flemish paintings, as well as more modern works. The Univ. of Liverpool was incorporated in 1903. There is a separate school of tropical medicine.

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"Liverpool." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Liverpool

Liverpool City and seaport on the n side of the River Mersey estuary, Merseyside, nw England. Liverpool was founded in the 10th century, and became a free borough in 1207. The first wet dock was completed in 1715, and the city expanded rapidly to become Britain's largest port. In the early 20th century, it was the major embarkation port for emigration to the New World. Liverpool suffered severe bomb damage during World War II. The construction (1972) of a container terminal and the completion of a rail tunnel link with Birkenhead improved the city's trade and transport links. In the 1980s, inner-city regeneration schemes included the Albert Dock refurbishment. Liverpool Free Port (Britain's largest) opened in 1984. The sixth-largest city in England and the principal Atlantic port, Liverpool has more than 800ha (2000 acres) of dockland. Pop. (1997) 458,000.

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LIVERPOOL

LIVERPOOL, LIVERPUDLIAN. See SCOUSE.

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Liverpool

LiverpoolBanjul, befool, Boole, boule, boules, boulle, cagoule, cool, drool, fool, ghoul, Joule, mewl, misrule, mule, O'Toole, pool, Poole, pul, pule, Raoul, rule, school, shul, sool, spool, Stamboul, stool, Thule, tomfool, tool, tulle, you'll, yule •mutule • kilojoule • playschool •intercool • Blackpool •ampoule (US ampule) • cesspool •Hartlepool • Liverpool • whirlpool •ferrule, ferule •curule • cucking-stool • faldstool •toadstool • footstool • animalcule •granule • capsule • ridicule • molecule •minuscule • fascicule • graticule •vestibule • reticule • globule •module, nodule •floccule • noctule • opuscule •pustule • majuscule • virgule

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"Liverpool." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/liverpool