Skip to main content
Select Source:

Cambridge

CAMBRIDGE

CAMBRIDGE, a town in the Massachusetts Bay Colony originally known as Newtowne, was settled in 1630 by a group of seven hundred Puritans from England who were determined to create a pure religious foundation in the New World. Originally governed by John Winthrop, who abandoned the town for Boston, Newtowne was a well-organized town, with a system of streets laid out in a grid pattern, including a marketplace, Winthrop Square.


At the beginning of the twenty-first century the town was bounded by Eliot Square, Linden Street, Massachusetts Avenue, and the Charles River. In 1636, Harvard College was founded to educate young men in the ministry. By the time of the American Revolution, Cambridge had become a farming community, but after the fighting began on 19 April 1775, more than twenty thousand armed militia members from New England arrived in Cambridge. Soldiers, including George Washington's army, camped on the Cambridge Commons and were quartered in the Harvard College buildings until April 1776.

In 1846, Cambridge became a city, unifying three towns: rural Old Cambridge; residential Cambridgeport, home to William Lloyd Garrison; and East Cambridge, developed in 1809 after the completion of the Canal Bridge. This town would be the chief industrial center of the city until the 1880s. The growth of urban housing and the influx of eastern European and Irish immigrants, as well as the construction of the East Cambridge jail, led to an impetus for prison reform, with Dorothea Dix at the forefront of this movement. Cambridge has always been an innovator, including the integration of its school system, which enticed many African Americans to move there. Harriet Jacobs, author of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, ran a boardinghouse in the 1870s in Cambridge.

Twenty-first-century Cambridge has retained its charm and maintains a culturally diverse population of approximately ninety-five thousand. Home to Harvard, Radcliffe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Lesley College, Cambridge attracts students from all over the world and has become a center for biotechnology and software research.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Burton, John Daniel. Puritan Town and Gown: Harvard College and Cambridge, Massachusetts, 16361800. Ph.D. diss. Williamsburg, Va.: College of William and Mary, 1996.

———. "The Awful Judgements of God upon the Land: Smallpox in Colonial Cambridge." New England Quarterly 74 (September 2001): 495–507.

Paige, Lucius R. History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630–1877. Boston: Houghton, 1877. Rev. ed. 1930.

JenniferHarrison

See alsoHarvard University ; Massachusetts Bay Colony .

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Cambridge." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Cambridge." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cambridge

"Cambridge." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved July 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cambridge

Cambridge (cities, United States)

Cambridge:1 City (1990 pop. 11,514), seat of Dorchester co., E Md., Eastern Shore, a port of entry on the Choptank River at its mouth on Chesapeake Bay; founded 1684, inc. as a city 1884. It is a fishing and yachting center. The city has shipyards, seafood and vegetable canneries, and electronic, clothing, and printing industries, and tourism is also important. Nearby Old Trinity Church (c.1675; restored 1960) is said to be the oldest church in the United States still in use. The Harriet Tubman–Underground Railroad National Monument and Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge are also nearby. 2 City (1990 pop. 95,802), seat of Middlesex co., E Mass., across the Charles River from Boston; settled 1630 as New Towne, inc. as a city 1846. A famous educational and research center, it is the seat of Harvard (founded 1636), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lesley College, and several theological seminaries. Its printing and publishing industry dates from about 1639, when Stephen Daye established the first printing press in America. Cambridge was a gathering place for American Revolutionary troops; there, on July 3, 1775, Washington took command. It was the first seat of the Massachusetts constitutional convention of 1780. Its numerous historic houses and sites include the Cooper-Frost-Austin house (c.1657); Harvard Yard, the old center of the university campus; and Mt. Auburn Cemetery, where Lowell, Longfellow, Mary Baker Eddy, and other notables are buried. The city's neighborhoods include fashionable Harvard Square; Kendall Square, a computing and biotechnology hub near MIT; and working-class East Cambridge. 3 City (1990 pop. 11,748), seat of Guernsey co., E central Ohio; settled 1798 by immigrants from the Isle of Guernsey, inc. 1837. It is the trade and manufacturing center for a dairy and livestock area. Lakes and parks surround the city. The large Salt Fork State Park is nearby.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Cambridge (cities, United States)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Cambridge (cities, United States)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cambridge-cities-united-states

"Cambridge (cities, United States)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cambridge-cities-united-states

Cambridge (city, England)

Cambridge, city (1991 pop. 87,111) and district, Cambridgeshire, E central England, on the River Cam. The city, set in flat country, is most famous as the site of the Univ. of Cambridge, and tourism is an economic mainstay. Originally the site of a Roman military camp, Cambridge was an administrative and trading center in Anglo-Saxon times. William I had a fort and mint constructed, and two monastic establishments were built in early medieval times. The university has its origins in the 12th cent. Central Cambridge still maintains much of its medieval atmosphere and appearance. Its noted medieval churches include St. Benet's or Bene't's, the oldest, dating from the late Saxon period; St. Edward's (begun 12th cent.), where Hugh Latimer preached; St. Mary the Great (1478), the university church; and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of four Norman round churches in England. Cambridge also has varied light industries. High-technology firms, drawing on the university's scientific prominence, have multiplied in recent years, and the city has come to be called "Silicon Fen."

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Cambridge (city, England)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Cambridge (city, England)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cambridge-city-england

"Cambridge (city, England)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cambridge-city-england

Cambridge (city, Canada)

Cambridge (kām´brĬj), city (1991 pop. 92,772), S Ont., Canada, on the Grand River, NW of Hamilton. It was formed in 1973 with the amalgamation of Galt, Hespeler, and Preston, all founded in the early 19th cent., and parts of Waterloo and North Dumfries townships. Cambridge is heavily industrialized, with manufactures such as textiles, chemicals, automobiles, and plastics. With Waterloo-Kitchener and Guelph, Cambridge makes up the "Canadian Technology Triangle."

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Cambridge (city, Canada)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Cambridge (city, Canada)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cambridge-city-canada

"Cambridge (city, Canada)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cambridge-city-canada

Cambridge

Cambridge City on the River Cam, county town of Cambridgeshire, e England. The University of Cambridge is one of the world's leading institutions. Industries: precision engineering, electronics, printing, publishing. Pop. (2002 est.) 99,900.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Cambridge." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Cambridge." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cambridge

"Cambridge." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved July 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cambridge

Cambridge

Cambridgecarriage, disparage, Harwich, intermarriage, marriage, miscarriage •undercarriage •cartridge, partridge •Selfridge • Cambridge • Bainbridge •Knightsbridge • umpirage •borage, forage, Norwich, porridge •Oxbridge • storage • drawbridge •Trowbridge • tollbridge • footbridge •courage, demurrage, encourage •umbrage • suffrage •peerage, steerage •sewerage • moorage •harbourage (US harborage) •pasturage • pilferage • anchorage •acreage • vicarage • brokerage •cellarage • Coleridge •haemorrhage (US hemorrhage) •amperage • factorage • hectarage •litreage (US literage), metreage (US meterage) • fosterage •porterage, quarterage •tutorage • average •beverage, Beveridge •leverage • overage • coverage

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Cambridge." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Cambridge." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cambridge

"Cambridge." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved July 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cambridge