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Kirkuk

Kirkuk (kĬrkōōk´), city (1987 pop. 418,624), NE Iraq. It is a center of Iraq's oil industry and is connected by pipelines to ports on the Mediterranean Sea. Kirkuk is a market for the region's produce, including cereals, olives, fruits, and cotton. There is a small textile industry. Kirkuk is built on a mound containing the remains of a settlement dating back to 3000 BC Kirkuk's population is mix of Turkomans, Kurds, and Arabs as well as many minorities; forced resettlement of many Kurds in the late 20th cent. reduced their numbers in the city and prompted a Kurdish migration back into the city and the surrounding province after the U.S. invasion of Iraq. In 2014 Kurdish forces took control of the city when the Iraqi army abandoned it in the face of a Sunni Islamist offensive.

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"Kirkuk." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Kirkuk." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kirkuk

Kirkuk

KIRKUK

A city in northeastern Iraq at the foot of the Zagros Mountains.

Historically a Kurdish city, Kirkuk today has an Arab plurality. According to the 1977 census, the population was 535,000; in 2004, it was estimated to be 784,100. The city is in the heartland of the Kurdish region; the Kirkuk oil field, the largest oil field in Iraq, is also the center of the Iraqi petroleum industry. Refineries and major oil pipelines lead from Kirkuk to Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey.

see also zagros.

reeva s. simon

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"Kirkuk." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Kirkuk." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kirkuk

"Kirkuk." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved June 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kirkuk