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The term womanist first appeared in Alice Walker's In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens: Womanist Prose (1983), in which the author attributed the word's origin to

the black folk expression of mothers to female children, 'You acting womanish,' i.e. like a woman usually referring to outrageous, audacious, courageous, or willful behavior. Wanting to know more and in greater depth than is considered 'good' for one [A womanist is also] a woman who loves other women sexually and/or nonsexually. Appreciates and prefers women's culture and women's strength committed to survival and wholeness of entire people, male and female. Not a separatist Womanist is to feminist as purple is to lavender. (pp. xixii)

Although Walker states that a womanist is a black feminist or feminist of color, she insists that a black feminist as womanist talks back to feminism, brings new demands and different perspectives to feminism, and compels the expansion of feminist horizons in theory and practice.

The introduction of "womanism" in the feminist lexicon in the early 1980s marks a historic moment in feminist engagement in the United States. The late 1970s and the 1980s witnessed an internal insurgency in feminism led by women of color who participated in fighting vigorously against sexual politics of the previous decade only to be confronted by the feminist politics of exclusion a decade later. Excluded from and alienated by feminist theorizing and thinking, women of color insisted that feminism must account for different subjectivities and locations in its analysis of women, thus bringing into focus the issue of difference, particularly with regard to race and class.

If feminism were not able to fully account for the experiences of black women, it would be necessary, then, to find other terminologies that could carry the weight of those experiences. It is in this regard that Alice Walker's "womanism" intervenes to make an important contribution. As Walker noted in the New York Times Magazine in 1984, "I don't choose womanism because it is 'better' than feminism I choose it because I prefer the sound, the feel, the fit of it; because I cherish the spirit of the women (like Sojourner) the word calls to mind, and because I share the old ethnic-American habit of offering society a new word when the old word it is using fails to describe behavior and change that only a new word can help it more fully see" (p. 94). In other words, feminism needed a new word that would capture its complexity and fullness. Despite Walker's claims to the contrary, she suggests in her definitions of womanism (e.g., "womanist is to feminism as purple is to lavender") that the womanist/black woman is stronger and superior to the feminist/white woman.

Walker's construction of womanism and the different meanings she invests in it is an attempt to situate the black woman in history and culture and at the same time rescue her from the negative and inaccurate stereotypes that mask her in American society. First, Walker inscribes the black woman as a knowing/thinking subject who is always in pursuit of knowledge, "wanting to know more and in greater depth than is considered 'good' for one," thus, interrogating the epistemological exclusions she endures in intellectual life in general and feminist scholarship in particular. Second, she highlights the black woman's agency, strength, capability, and independence. Opposed to the gender separatism that bedevils feminism, womanism presents an alternative for black women by framing their survival in the context of the survival of their community where the fate of women and that of men are inextricably linked. As Patricia Hill Collins aptly notes, "many black women view feminism as a movement that at best, is exclusively for women, and, at worst, dedicated to attacking or eliminating men Womanism seemingly supplies a way for black women to address gender-oppression without attacking black men" (p. 11).

In 1993 the word womanism with the meanings Alice Walker bestowed on it was added to The American Heritage Dictionary. The concept has had a profound influence in the formulation of theories and analytical frameworks in women/gender studies, religious studies, black studies, and literary studies. Because of the linking of black women and spirituality in Walker's project, many African-American female theologians have incorporated womanist perspectives in their work. Drawing on African-American history in general and the black church in particular, black womanist theologians interrogate the subordination of women and assume a leadership role in reconstructing knowledge about women. Prominent black womanist theologians and scholars of religionsuch as Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, Katie Geneva Cannon, Delores S. Williams, Emilie Maureen Townes, and Marcia Y. Riggsbring womanist perspectives to bear on their black church, canon formation, social equality, black women's club movement of the nineteenth century, race, gender, class, and social justice. The impact of womanism goes beyond the United States to Africa where many women scholars and literary critics (Chikwenye Okonjo Ogunyemi, Tuzyline Jita Allan, and Mary Modupe Kolawole, in particular) have embraced it as an analytical tool.

Alice Walker's womanism has also generated debates and controversies. Prominent among those who challenge the terminology's appropriateness for framing and explaining the lives of women of African descent is Clenora Hudson-Weems, who proposes an alternative terminologyAfricana womanism that is different from Black feminism, African feminism, and Walker's womanism. Many of the debates and controversies about womanism focus on the differences and tension between womanism and black feminism. Patricia Hill Collins offers an excellent critique of both womanism and black feminism. Hill Collins notes that the debate about whether to label black women's standpoint womanist or black feminist is indicative of the diversity among black women. According to Hill Collins, "Walker's definition thus manages to invoke three important yet contradictory philosophies that frame black social and political thought, namely, black nationalism via her claims of black women's moral and epistemological superiority via suffering under racial and gender oppression, pluralism via cultural integrity provided by the metaphor of the garden, and integration/assimilation via her claims that black women are 'traditionally universalist'" (p. 11). While weaving the separatism and black moral superiority of the black nationalist philosophy, the pluralism of the black empowerment variant, and the interrogation of white feminism, womanism seeks to give a voice, a standpoint to black women but fails to adequately take into account the heterogeneity of women of African descent with their different histories and realities.

See also Feminism: Africa and African Diaspora ; Philosophies: African ; Women's History: Africa .


Allan, Tuzyline Jita. Womanist and Feminist Aesthetic Comparative Review. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1995.

Cannon, Katie Geneva. Black Womanist Ethics. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1988.

Collins, Patricia Hill. "What's in a Name? Womanism, Black Feminism, and Beyond." The Black Scholar 26, no. 1 (1996): 917.

Gilkes, Cheryl Townsend. "If It Wasn't for Women": Black Women's Experience and Womanist Culture in Church and Community. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 2001.

Hudson-Weems, Clenora. "African Womanism." In Sisterhood, Feminisms, and Power: From Africa to the Diaspora, edited by Obioma Nnaemeka. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1998.

. African Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves. Detroit: Bedford Press, 1993.

Kolawole, Mary Ebun Modupe. Womanism and African Consciousness. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1997.

Ogunyemi, Chikwenye Okonjo. "Womanism: The Dynamics of the Contemporary Black Female Novel in English." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 11, no. 1 (1985): 6380.

Riggs, Marcia Y. Awake, Arise, and Act: A Womanist Call for Black Liberation. Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim Press, 1994.

Sanders, Cheryl J., ed. Living the Intersection: Womanism and Afrocentrism in Theology. Minneapolis, Minn.: Fortress Press, 1995.

Townes, Emilie Maureen. Womanist Justice, Womanist Hope. Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, 1993.

Townes, Emilie Maureen, ed. Embracing the Spirit: Womanist Perspectives on Hope, Salvation, and Transformation. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1997.

Townes, Emilie Maureen, ed. A Troubling in My Soul: Womanist Perspectives on Evil and Suffering. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1993.

Walker, Alice. "The Black Woman's Story." New York Times Sunday Magazine, February 12, 1984, p. 94.

. In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens: Womanist Prose. San Diego, Calif.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983.

Williams, Delores S. Sisters in the Wilderness: The Challenge of Womanist God-Talk. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1993.

Williams, Sherley Ann. "Some Implications of Womanist Theory." In Reading Black, Reading Feminist: A Critical Anthology, edited by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., 6875. New York: Meridian, 1990.

Obioma Nnaemeka

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An ongoing concern for black feminists has always been that their specific experiences have been elided within a discourse that is biased towards a white, Anglo-American perspective. It is a view clearly enunciated by Audre Lordes essay An Open Letter to Mary Daly (1984) in which she castigates the radical feminist philosopher for her misrepresentation of black women in her book Gyn/Ecology (1978), which Lorde claimed, dismissed my heritage and the heritage of all other noneuropean women (69).

But in 1983, in which Lorde published her address to Daly, the writer Alice Walker published what was to prove an extremely influential essay, In Search of Our Mothers Gardens (1983) in which her central concern was to formulate a definition of black feminism from within African American culture itself. Whereas Lorde argued that Daly portrayed black women only as victims, ignoring their power as active agents capable of combating their own oppression, Walker focused on precisely those positive aspects, developing a feminist terminology drawn from everyday discourse used in the black community.

Although the term womanist is now synonymous with Walkers essay and book by the same title, it was not new to the English language. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term womanism first appeared in 1863, indicating advocacy of or enthusiasm for the rights, achievements, etc. of women. In the context of second wave feminism, however, womanism has become more specifically aligned with the black feminist movement. Walkers use of the term womanism therefore etymologically relates directly not to its prior usage in the nineteenth century but to the colloquial term womanish, which Walker defines as Opp. of girlish, i.e., frivolous, irresponsible, not serious. A womanish girl is wilful, inquisitive, and wise beyond her years, refusing to accept rules and limitations imposed by others.

However, although Walker draws the concept of womanism from, and defines it through, a black cultural context, she intends it to be inclusive rather than exclusive, offering four increasingly poetic understandings of the word that stress its connectedness to wider experiences of feminism. Although she begins with the black folk usage of womanish, her second description expands the term to designate any woman, of any color, whose primary identification is with other women, either sexually or nonsexually. Nevertheless, a womanist is not a separatist but someone who is a universalist, committed to wholeness of entire people, male and female (xi). She thus harmonizes two contradictory subject positions: a dedication to personal freedom along with an acknowledgment of the innate interconnectedness of peoples and genders. Walkers third definition stresses this balance between separation and association, identifying a womanist as someone committed to sensual gratification but also political struggle; to herself and to the wider community within which she is situated.

It is for this reason that womanism has become a widely used term within feminist theory, for it allows black women to articulate their feminism without relinquishing an attachment to black culture and racial politics. The subtle distinction between feminism and womanism is best summed up by Walkers final definition: Womanist is to feminist as purple to lavender (xii), and is exemplified in a speech delivered over a hundred years earlier. When Sojourner Truth, speaking at the Womens Convention in Akron, Ohio in 1851, proclaimed aint I a woman?, she asserted her rights not only as a woman, but also as an African American, an ex-slave, and a political campaigner.

SEE ALSO Feminism; Feminism, Second Wave; Inequality, Racial; Truth, Sojourner


Lorde, Audre. 1984. An Open Letter to Mary Daly. Sister Outsider, ed. Audre Lorde. 6671. Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press.

Walker, Alice. 1983. In Search of Our Mothers Gardens. In In Search of Our Mothers Gardens: Womanist Prose. New York: Harcourt.

Sarah Gamble

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