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1. A modernist faction among the Orthodox Jewish community. As a movement, Neo-Orthodoxy was established in the late 19th cent. under the leadership of Samson Raphael Hirsch. He taught the principle of Torah ʿim derekh erez (‘Torah [in harmony] with the way of life’) i.e. careful observance of mitzvot (commandments) and customs combined with a positive attitude to secular life where no conflict obtained.

2. A Protestant Christian reaction against 19th-cent. liberalism in theology. The reaction was not organized, and is particularly associated with K. Barth. Quintessentially, Neo-Orthodoxy rejected the liberal belief that it is possible to argue from experience to God, or, more extremely, that theology is disguised anthropology. For Neo-Orthodoxy, the word and revelation of God constitute a disjunctive act which cannot be subordinated to human judgement: this self-revelation is uniquely embodied in Jesus Christ, the Word of God made flesh.

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"Neo-Orthodoxy." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . 13 Dec. 2017 <>.

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