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Kosher

KOSHER

In Judaism, refers to dietary regulations for daily life.

Kosher is a Yiddish word, from Hebrew kasher, "proper" or "fit." The laws of kashrut (dietary laws) define foods fit for use, those that are kosher for Jews. They are mentioned in numerous verses of the Bible (especially in Deuteronomy), but they were interpreted for daily use by the sages of the Talmud (in the commentaries called the Mishnah, c. 200 c.e., and in the Gemarah, commentaries on the Mishnah). They went into effect, for the most part, during the early Diaspora, and they helped establish both a religious and a folk sense of community among a dispersed nation. Those who traveled, who were engaged in international trade, or who were dispossessed from century to century could seek others who shared a sense of proper food handling.

The laws of kashrut define how to kill, handle, and prepare meat and dairy products. They define which animals may be considered food at all, and which parts of kosher animals may be used. For example, fish without fins and scales may not be eaten, and animals without horns and cloven hooves may not be eaten. Animals that eat carrion are unfit, as is the eating of meat with dairy products. Vegetables, fruits, and grains are never unfit. Thus, out of necessity, many Jews who travel without kosher food available become vegetarians in order to keep the kashrut tradition.

see also diaspora; talmud.


Bibliography


Fishbane, Michael. Judaism: Revelation and Traditions. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row, 1987.

Gilbert, Martin, ed. The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization: Four Thousand Years of Jewish History. New York: Macmillan, 1990.

zachary karabell

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"Kosher." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Kosher." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kosher

"Kosher." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kosher

kosher

kosher [Heb.,=proper, i.e., fit for use], in Judaism, term used in rabbinic literature to mean what is ritually correct, but most widely applied to food that is in accordance with dietary laws based on Old Testament passages (primarily Lev. 11 and Deut. 14). Kosher meat is the flesh of animals that both chew the cud and have cloven hoofs (as the cow and sheep); the animal must have been slaughtered with a skillful stroke by a specially trained Jew; the meat must be carefully inspected, and, unless cooked by broiling, it must be salted and soaked to remove all traces of blood. Kosher fishes are those that have scales and fins. The rules that apply to the slaughter and preparation of animals are the same as those for the slaughter of fowl. The cooking and eating of milk products with, or immediately after, meats or meat products is unkosher; even the use of the same kitchen and table utensils and towels is forbidden. The cleansing of newly acquired utensils and the preparation of articles for Passover use are also called koshering. The antithesis of kosher is tref [Heb.,=animal torn by wild beasts]. Reform Judaism does not require observance of the kosher laws.

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"kosher." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"kosher." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kosher

"kosher." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kosher

kosher

kosher of food, or premises in which food is sold, cooked, or eaten, satisfying the requirements of Jewish law.

Restrictions on the foods suitable for Jews are derived from rules in the books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy. Animals must be slaughtered and prepared in the prescribed way, in which the blood is drained from the body, while certain creatures, notably pigs and shellfish, are forbidden altogether. Meat and milk must not be cooked or consumed together, and separate utensils must be kept for each. Strict observance of these rules is today confined mainly to Orthodox Jews.

The word comes (in the mid 19th century) from Hebrew kāšēr ‘proper’.

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"kosher." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"kosher." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kosher

"kosher." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kosher

kosher

kosher The selection and preparation of foods in accordance with traditional Jewish ritual and dietary laws. Foods that are not kosher are traife.

The only kosher flesh foods are from animals that chew the cud and have cloven hoofs, such as cattle, sheep, goats, and deer; the hindquarters must not be eaten. The only fish permitted are those with fins and scales; birds of prey and scavengers are not kosher. Moreover, the animals must be slaughtered according to ritual, without stunning, before the meat can be considered kosher. See also Passover.

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"kosher." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"kosher." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kosher

"kosher." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kosher

kosher

ko·sher / ˈkōshər/ • adj. (of food, or premises in which food is sold, cooked, or eaten) satisfying the requirements of Jewish law: a kosher kitchen. ∎  (of a person) observing Jewish food laws. ∎  (of ritual objects) fit for use according to Jewish laws. ∎ fig. genuine and legitimate: when he buys a record abroad, it is impossible to know whether it's kosher. • v. [tr.] prepare (food) according to the requirements of Jewish law.

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"kosher." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"kosher." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kosher-1

"kosher." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kosher-1

kosher

kosher Ritually correct or acceptable for Jews. A word of Hebrew origin, it is applied by Orthodox Jews to food that conforms to Jewish dietary laws and customs.

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"kosher." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"kosher." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kosher

"kosher." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kosher

kosher

kosher adj. and sb. of meat prepared according to Jewish law. XIX. — Heb. kāshēr right.

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"kosher." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"kosher." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kosher-2

"kosher." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kosher-2

Kosher

Kosher (Ashkenazi pronunciation of Heb. kasher): see DIETARY LAWS.

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"Kosher." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kosher

kosher

kosherjosher, washer •moksha • tonsure • dishwasher •whitewasher • Portia • launcher •brochure, kosher, Scotia •fuchsia • pusher • penpusher •blusher, crusher, flusher, gusher, Prussia, rusher, Russia, usher •cruncher, luncher, puncher •cowpuncher • Udmurtia •inertia, Persia

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