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Carmelites

Carmelites (kär´məlīts), Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars. Originally a group of hermits, apparently European, living on Mt. Carmel in Palestine, their supervision was undertaken (c.1150) by St. Berthold. In 1238 they moved to Cyprus, and thence to Western Europe. St. Simon Stock (d. 1265), an Englishman, was their second founder. He transformed them into an order of friars resembling Dominicans and Franciscans and founded monasteries at Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, and Bologna. They rapidly became prominent in university life. An enclosed order of Carmelite nuns was established. The Carmelites, like other orders, declined in the 15th cent. They were revived by St. Theresa (of Ávila) and St. John of the Cross in 16th-century Spain. These great contemplatives gave the order a special orientation toward mysticism. Their reformed branch is the Discalced (or Barefoot) Carmelites; it is now more numerous than the Carmelites of the Old Observance. The Discalced Carmelites cultivate the contemplative life in all aspects, and they have produced many works on mystical theology. St. Theresa (of Lisieux) is a well-known Discalced Carmelite of the 19th cent. In 1790 the first community came to the United States and settled near Port Tobacco, Md. There are presently about 6,900 priests and brothers living in Carmelite communities, with 500 living in the United States.

See E. A. Peers, Spirit of Flame (1944, repr. 1961); P. Rohrback, Journey to the Carith (1966).

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"Carmelites." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Carmelites

Carmelites were originally established as a monastic order in Palestine in the mid-12th cent., claiming descent via early hermits on Mount Carmel from Elijah and the Old Testament prophets. They were given a rule of great asceticism in 1209. Following the decline of the crusading states they returned to Europe in the mid-13th cent. Several communities were established in England c.1242. Shortly afterwards the Carmelites were reorganized as mendicant friars (the ‘white friars’), perhaps under the influence of the English ‘general’ of the order, St Simon Stock. They remained especially popular in England, where there were nearly 40 friaries at the dissolution. In England, as elsewhere, the order was notable for its scholars and theologians, while the 16th-cent. Spanish poet and mystic St John of the Cross was a Carmelite.

Brian Golding

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"Carmelites." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Carmelites

Carmelites. Christian (Roman Catholic) religious order, deriving from hermits on Mount Carmel in Palestine, c.1200. Migrating to Europe as the failure of the Crusades began to lead to a break-up of the Latin Kingdom (c.1240), they were organized along lines of solitude, abstinence, and prayer. They were joined by nuns in 1452 as the Carmelite Second Order. Increasing laxity prompted the radical reforms of Teresa of Avila, earning the name Discalced (i.e. not wearing sandals). John of the Cross extended the reform to male houses of the order. Not having a founding figure (as e.g. Dominic, Francis, or Benedict), they take Elijah and Mary as their founders.

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"Carmelites." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Carmelites." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved August 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/carmelites

Carmelite

Carmelite a friar or nun of a contemplative Catholic order dedicated to Our Lady. The Carmelite order of friars was founded during the Crusades c.1154 by St Berthold at Mount Carmel; the order of nuns was established in 1452. A reform movement in the late 16th century, led by St Teresa of Ávila and St John of the Cross, led to the formation of the stricter ‘discalced’ orders.

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"Carmelite." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Carmelite

Car·mel·ite / ˈkärməˌlīt/ • n. a friar or nun of a contemplative Catholic order founded at Mount Carmel during the Crusades. • adj. of or relating to the Carmelites.

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"Carmelite." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Carmelites

Carmelites (officially Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel) Order founded by Saint Berthold in Palestine c.1154. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in 1452. The Carmelites devote themselves to contemplation and missionary work.

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Carmelite

Carmelite one of an order of mendicant friars originating from Mount Carmel, a White Friar. XV. — F. carmélite or medL. carmēlīta.

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"Carmelite." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Carmelite." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved August 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/carmelite-2

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"Carmelite." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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