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Tribute

TRIBUTE

TRIBUTE. Thomas Jefferson's new administration faced a crisis regarding the Barbary pirate nations of North Africa. For years, European nations and the United States had paid tribute, or ransom, to these rogue nations to ensure protection of commercial vessels and keep sailors from being captured and sold into slavery. But the practice was expensive. From 1795 to 1802, the United States had paid more than $2 million in tributes. Nevertheless, this sum did not prevent the North African nation of Tripoli from declaring war against the United States; Tripoli wanted a larger share of the money. From 1801 to 1805, American naval operations against the pirates proved inconclusive. On February 16, 1804, U.S. naval officer Stephen Decatur's ship destroyed a captured American ship, denying the enemy the benefits of the capture. Military operations on land were successful enough to force Tripoli's government to sue for peace. It was a temporary solution. During the Napoleonic Wars, the pirates resumed their attacks. Finally, in 1815, Decatur's navy forced Tripoli to renounce the practice of paying tribute. The extended campaign against the Barbary states was over and no tribute was paid after 1815. In an indirect fashion, the United States had also helped Europe, since paying a tribute became a relic of the past for both.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allen, Gardner Weld. Our Navy and the Barbary Corsairs. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1905. An old and factual account.

Irwin, Ray Watkins. The Diplomatic Relations of the United States with the Barbary Powers, 1776–1816. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1931. A close, informative narrative.

Donald K.Pickens

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"Tribute." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Tribute." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tribute

Tribute

TRIBUTE


Tribute is payment made to a ruling or conquering nation by subjugated people in acknowledgment of submission or as a price for protection from other countries. Derived from the Latin word tributum, referring to property tax paid by Roman citizens, the term evolved to mean taxes levied on conquered peoples. Nations increased their wealth through these taxes.

After Cortez conquered the Aztec in 1521, the American Indians had to pay a special tax called a tribute to the Spaniards. Two slightly different perspectives on tribute existed in China for centuries. The Chinese used tribute to solidify political and trade ties with neighboring nations. China also received tribute from less powerful princes in Central and Southwest Asia and Korea, but returned to those countries gifts of equal value to the tribute.

In U.S. history, tribute is associated with U.S. shipping and the Barbary States of Northern Africa, including Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. The Barbary States are part of modern-day Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. The Barbary Coast pirates had, since the 16th century, accepted payments or valuable presents in exchange for allowing merchant ships passage through the Mediterranean Sea. American ships ventured into the Barbary waters in the late eighteenth century. Refusing to comply with these demands, many U.S. ships were captured and their sailors enslaved. The U.S. government was too poor to buy its citizens' freedom and too weak to prevent such hostilities. The United States negotiated treaties with Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis, and by 1802 had paid over $2 million in tributes. The piracy governments continued demanding higher tributes. Under President Thomas Jefferson (18011809) the United States fought against Tripoli in the Barbary Wars (18011805). In 1815 with warfare renewed against Algiers, a stronger United States demanded abandonment of all tribute claims. Although official payment of tribute ended in the mid-1810's, the United States occasionally paid tribute until the mid-nineteenth century.

See also: Barbary States

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"Tribute." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Tribute." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tribute

tribute

trib·ute / ˈtribyoōt/ • n. 1. an act, statement, or gift that is intended to show gratitude, respect, or admiration: the video is a tribute to the musicals of the '40s | a symposium organized to pay tribute to Darwin. ∎  [in sing.] something resulting from something else and indicating its worth: his victory in the championship was a tribute to his persistence. 2. hist. payment made periodically by one state or ruler to another, esp. as a sign of dependence: the king had at his disposal plunder and tribute amassed through warfare. 3. hist. a proportion of ore or its equivalent, paid to a miner for his work, or to the owner or lessor of a mine.

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"tribute." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"tribute." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tribute-0

tribute

tribute tax paid to a superior XIV; transf. and fig. XVI. — L. tribūtum, sb. use of n. of tribūtus, pp. of tribuere assign, allot, grant, prop. to divide among the tribes, f. tribus TRIBE.
So tributary adj. paying tribute XIV; paid in tribute XVI; subsidiary, auxiliary XVII; sb. one who pays tribute XIV; tributary stream XIX. — L. tribūtārius.

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"tribute." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Tribute

Tribute

a sum of money or a contribution of praise paid to another.

Examples : tribute of affection, 1850; of tears.

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"Tribute." Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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tribute

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"tribute." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tribute