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Stubbs, George

Stubbs, George (1724–1806). English anatomist and animal painter, especially of horses, Stubbs's work captures the English gentleman's enjoyment of rural life, at its peak in the prosperity of the mid-18th cent. Stubbs's paintings of racehorses, often with owner or groom, were particularly popular both in original form and as prints. Another recurring theme, of a lion attacking a horse, recalled an event Stubbs saw on a visit to north Africa. His anatomical skills ensured that the power and beauty of animals was captured without sentimentality. In 1766 Stubbs published Anatomy of the Horse, the result of ten years of dissection and drawing. At his death he was working on an anatomical study (now at Yale) comparing various species. Working with Josiah Wedgwood, he produced enamel paintings on earthenware including one of Warren Hastings, in the Memorial Hall in Calcutta. There are examples of Stubbs's work in the Royal Collection and principal galleries throughout Britain.

June Cochrane

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"Stubbs, George." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Warren, Josiah

Josiah Warren, 1798–1874, American reformer and anarchist, b. Boston. An early follower of Robert Owen, he soon rejected Owen's political socialism, advocating instead anarchy based on "the sovereignty of the individual." He founded several "equity" stores, based on the idea of exchanging goods for an equivalent amount of labor and on the principle that cost should be the limit of price. He also established three utopian colonies; the most successful (1851–c.1860) was Modern Times (now Brentwood), Long Island, N.Y. The most important of his publications was True Civilization (1863, 5th ed. 1875).

See study by W. Bailie (1906, repr. 1971).

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"Warren, Josiah." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Warren, Josiah." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/warren-josiah

Stubbs, George

Stubbs, George (1724–1806) English painter and engraver. Stubbs is best-known for the book The Anatomy of the Horse (1766), illustrated with his own engravings. Horses attacked by a lion (1770) reveals a more Romantic approach.

http://www.tate.org.uk; http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk

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"Stubbs, George." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Stubbs, George." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/stubbs-george