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Pearl Jam

Pearl Jam

Rock band

For the Record

Formed From Ashes of Mother Love Bone

Vedder Brought Passion, Work Ethic

Dealt With Fame, Pressure for Follow-Up

Sophomore Release a Smash Success

Selected discography

Sources

Pearl Jam is much more than a popular band to the many who look to their emotion-driven music for comfort, solidarity, and a sense of connectedness, noted Guitar Players Mike Mettler. A remarkable 1990s success story, the band is also part of the fierce Seattle rock scene that stunned the music industry by turning soulful, cathartic themes, punk attitude, and metal guitar into multi-platinum sales. Though at first thrown for a loop by their success, Pearl Jam-fronted by charismatic lead vocalist Eddie Vedderfollowed their multi-platinum debut album with a strong and popular sophomore release, making their huge appeal even harder to write off as a mere trend.

Much of the credit for Pearl Jams sudden and solid connection with its devoted, youthful audience must go to Vedder, whose vocalized anguish seems to strike the raw and hurting nerve of a young generation raised on divorce and dysfunction, according to a People magazine writer. The singers own troubled past informs his lyricsrife with images of violence and lonelinessand his singing balances rage, despair,

For the Record

Members include Dave Abbruzzese (born c. 1968 . in Texas), drums; Jeff Ament (born c. 1963 in Montana), bass; Stone Gossard (born c. 1966), guitar; Dave Krusen, drums (left band 1991); Mike Mc-Cready (born c. 1965), guitar; Eddie Vedder (born Edward Louis Seversen III in Evanston, IL, c. 1965; married Beth Liebling [a writer], 1994), vocals.

Recording and performing artists, 1991. Band formed in Seattle, WA; signed with Epic and released debut album Ten, 1991; contributed to Bob Dylan Tribute concert and album, 1992 ; appeared on Victoria Williams tribute album Sweet Relief, 1993; collaborated with group Cypress Hill on song for soundtrack to film Judgment Night, 1993.

Awards: Platinum records for Ten, 1992, and Vs., 1993; favorite new artist, pop/rock and favorite new artist heavy metal/hard rock, 1993 American Music Awards; best video of the year, best group video and best metal/hard rock video for Jeremy (director: Mark Pellington), MTV Video Music Awards, 1993; Rolling Stone artists of the year, 1994.

Addresses: Record company Epic Associated, Sony Music Entertainment Inc., 550 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10022; 2100 Colorado Ave., Santa Monica, CA 90404. Fan ClubPearlJam Ten Club, P.O. Box 4570, Seattle, WA 98104.

yearning, and hope in a way that has struck a chord with listeners since the release of Pearl Jams Epic debut Ten in 1991. I mean, my upbringing was like a hurricane, and music was the tree I held onto, Vedder explained to Melody Maker.Thats how important it was, and is. Its everything. The vocalist had more difficulty than his bandmates dealing with the demands of sudden fame and seemed taken aback by the realization of his own impact: The fact that so many people relate to these songs is kind of depressing, he told Details.A Rolling Stone review called Vedder both a heroic figure and a big force without bulls; he bellows doubt.

Formed From Ashes of Mother Love Bone

Pearl Jam was started by guitarist Stone Gossard and bassist Jeff Ament. The two had played together in the Seattle outfit Green River (along with two founders of the influential band Mudhoney) and helped to develop the grunge rock sound that would later be celebrated and scrutinized by the very industry pundits who originally ignored the bands developing the trend. It was with the glam-metal group Mother Love Bone, however, that Gossard and Ament fully expected to hit the big time; fronted by flamboyant singer Andy Wood, the group was signed and had recorded an album when Wood died of a heroin overdose in 1990.

Though devastated by Woods death, Ament and Gossard vowed to struggle on. Seeing no point in trying to replace the inimitable Wood, they decided to put together a new project. Gossardlacking the ego to move from rhythm to lead guitar, as Devon Jackson of Details expressed itenlisted Mike McCready, a guitarist who had played in such unheralded Seattle bands as Shadow and Love Chile. While long an idolizer of rock trailblazer Jimi Hendrix, McCreadys playing had recently been energized by the work of blues guitar greats like Muddy Waters and Stevie Ray Vaughn. Describing Waterss performance in the concert documentary The Last Waltz to Guitar Players Mettler, McCready declared, I couldnt believe the raw, emotional power he generated; it was just what I was looking for as a player. The blues is all about intense, cathartic feelings and finding that special place where you can channel all your stress into something else. Gossards compositions, which Guitar Player noted were often predicated on unusual guitar tunings, provided a perfect springboard for what Mettler called McCreadys raw, Hendrix-inspired lead work.

Vedder Brought Passion, Work Ethic

Brought together, the two guitar players just clicked, McCready declared. All that remained, McCready recalled to Mettler, was to find Eddie and a drummer. Its understandable that Vedder seemed in retrospect the only person to front Pearl Jam (which was originally named Mookie Blaylock, after a hard-working pro basketball player admired by the hoop-obsessed musicians). Drummer Jack Irons, formerly of alternative-rock sensations the Red Hot Chili Peppers, declined the drummer spot but recommended that Gossard and company send a tape of instrumentals to Vedder, an Evanston, Illinois native who was living in San Diego. Vedder loved the tape, wrote lyrics to three of the tunes and sang them over the music, made his own photocopied art for it, titled the whole package Mamasan, and sent it back to Seattle. Ament listened to it and promptly phoned Gossard, according to a Rolling Stone profile. Stone, he reportedly insisted, you better get over here.

Vedder told his new bandmates that he wanted to rehearse as soon as he arrived in Seattle. With Dave Krusen on drums, the group spent a week writing and rehearsing and then played their first show. They took the name Pearl Jam, allegedly after a mysterious preserve made by Vedders great-grandmother. Their debut albumwhich they produced along with Rick Parashar, who also worked with the band Blind Melonwas called Ten after Mookie Blaylocks jersey number. We were green when we made Ten, Mc-Cready revealed to Guitar Player.Aside from Jeff and Stone, nobody else had really done a record before.

A writer for Details noted that the recording contained everything youd expect of a Seattle band: roaring guitars, rough edges, no frills or flash. And plenty of musical hooks. Music Express declared, Theres absolutely nothing new about Pearl Jam, although it judged Vedders voice and the groups hard-hitting sound irresistible. Critical admiration, however, was not required to make the band a sensation. They appeared as the backing musicians for the character played by Matt Dillon in Cameron Crowes motion picture Singles (filmed before Ten but released after the album had begun rocketing up the charts). Gossa-rd and McCready also joined members of fellow Seattle rockers Soundgarden for a one-off albumcalled Temple of the Dog dedicated to Wood. Vedder put in an appearance on the song Hunger Strike. That album, too, became a hit after Pearl Jam began to chart.

The initial single from Ten, the furious rocker Alive, became a major hit, thanks in part to a video that showed a raucous live performance. It was the mainstream music audiences first exposure to Vedder, whose anguished yet resilient presence became an overnight sensation. The singer later revealed to Rolling Stone that Alivedespite having been adopted as asurvival anthem by critics and fans alikewas a far darker and more despairing tale than anyone seemed to realize. (He later described it as the story of a mothers sexual attraction to her son, based on his resemblance to his dead father.)

The song Evenflow also fared well, and the bands appearance on MTV Unplugged broadened its audience considerably. But it was the first concept video for a Pearl Jam songsomething the group had initially vowed not to dothat took them over the top. Jeremy, a tragic story of a misunderstood boy who kills himself before his classmates, became the groups biggest hit thanks in large part to a dramatic video by Mark Pellington that won three trophies at the MTV Video Awards. The group resisted Epics efforts to make a video for the emotional Black, believing it would compromise the songs personal meaning. Even so, Ten became a multi-platinum sensation, and Pearl Jam was suddenly one of the biggest bands in the music world. Among other honors, they took home trophies at the 1993 American Music Awards for favorite new artist in both the pop/rock and heavy metal/hard rock categories.

The band toured the world, making converts everywhere they went. Melody Maker reported that at a concert in Oslo, Norway, the fans kn[ew] all the words. It takes something less than seconds for Pearl Jam, in a live context, to astonish. Ten continued to rise up the charts, though it didnt getto the top position. Nonetheless, Pearl Jam had arrived.

Vedder was a bona fide rock hero in the grand tradition, a development reinforced by his singing in front of the reunited 1960s band The Doorsin place of the bands late and legendary vocalist Jim Morrisonon the occasion of their induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and his participation in the 1992 anniversary tribute to visionary singer/songwriter Bob Dylan. The band would rub shoulders with other rock idols: they opened for Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards at a New Years Eve concert and joined rock survivor Neil Young onstage at the MTV Video Music Awards for a raucous version of Youngs Rockininthe Free World. They joined Young for a tour, and shared a European bill with Irish superstars U2. The group also participated in a number of benefit albums, including the Sweet Relief tribute to singer/songwriter Victoria Williams.

Dealt With Fame, Pressure for Follow-Up

By the time the group finished recording its second album, the sense of anticipation in the rock world was palpable. Vedder, having emerged as a rock hero, served as tabloid fodder for months; speculation abounded that he had become an alcoholic, and one briefly circulated rumor had him dead of a heroin overdose. (In 1994, bandmate Abbruzzese commented wryly in Rolling Stone, Eddie died three times last year.) At one point Vedder phoned underground musician and writer Henry Rollinsa fiercely independent and self-reliant figurefor advice. My take on the whole thing was, heres an honest guy in a very weird situation, Rollins recalled to Rolling Stone.I said, Eddie, usually people as big as you are are real schmucks. Because they pulled every string to make that happen. But you havent. You put the shit out there, and people went Thank you, thats what Ive been waiting to hear. Rollins said he advised the singer to drink your carrot juice, breathe deep, have fun, and dont do what you dont want to. Despite his struggle with the limelight, however, Vedder had thrown himself into the bands new batch of songs.

Between the release of Ten and the completion of the follow-up, of course, there had been a few changes in the cultural landscape. Most notably, grunge was a term bandied about by magazine publishers, talk-show pundits, and fashion designers, and the term the next Seattle had been hurled at every burgeoning local music scene. Vedder himself had become an unwilling spokesperson for youthful angst, not to mention the subject of considerable theorizing on the pages of teen magazine Sassy.

Sophomore Release a Smash Success

Pearl Jams second album, originally titled Five Against One but changed to Vs.after its initial pressing, hit retail outlets in the fall of 1993. It sold 950,000 copies in its first week, reported Variety, and went quintuple-platinum in three months. By that time, Ten was officially a sextuple-platinum recording. Produced by the band with alternative-rock scion Brendan OBrien and recorded at a remote, posh studio in northern California, the record displayed an expanded musical palette, most evident in Abbruzzeses diverse rhythms and a greater range of guitar tones. Its tempting, wrote James Rotondi of Guitar Player, to suggest the term grunge-funk Cameron Crowe ventured in Rolling Stone that the album is the bands turf-statement, a personal declaration of the importance of music over idolatry. The songs cover the spectrum from the scorching Leash and W.M.A., among other songs raging against oppression and violence to softer, more introspective compositions like Daughter and Elderly Woman Behind the Counter in a Small Town.

Vs.suggested to many critics that the band had matured considerably. The songs are less anthemic but every bit as gripping, Rotondi mused, ripe with meaning that gradually unfolds upon deeper listening. Rolling Stone gave the album four and one-half stars and heaped special praise on Vedders smart singing and the muscular roil of Dave Abbruzzeses percussion, concluding that theres always enough going on beneath the surface to remind us that magic in this bands music builds from the bottom up.

Richard Cromelin of the Los Angeles Times, more afan of Vedders style and power than the bands music, dubbed the sophomore effort a palpably stronger album than Pearl Jams debut, adding that by its close the band have reaffirmed that rock album can be a grueling, blood-and-guts experience that leaves a listener bruised, muddyand ultimately elevated. USA Today, meanwhile, called Vs.crunching a melodic, raw and graceful, mystical and visceral.

Yet despite all of their success, Pearl Jam has not forgotten about their fans. A writer for Billboard noted that the band has gladly accepted the challenge of balancing their enormous success with delivering what they think loyal fans deserve: access and reasonably priced music. Some of the ways Pearl Jam has tried to achieve this goal include notifying fan club members of upcoming shows and giving them first dibs on tickets, refusing to sell limited-view tickets, and keeping ticket prices (before service charges) at $18. The band has taken particular exception to the concept of service charges; in May of 1994 they filed a brief with the U.S. Department of Justice charging Ticketmaster, a national ticket distributer, with forming a monopoly.

Pearl Jam is staunchly opposed to the service chargeranging from three to six dollarsthat Ticketmaster tacks onto the price of concert tickets that are bought by phone. (The band would accept a service charge of $1.80.) The argument intensified when Pearl Jam claimed that Ticketmaster had used its influence to keep promoters from booking the bands 1994 summer tour. Ticketmaster denies the allegations, but the Justice Department is proceeding with an investigation of possible anti-competitive practice in the ticket distribution industry, according to the Detroit News.

In their Rolling Stone interview with Crowean old friend from Seattlethe band reflected on the ramifications of large-scale success. Gossard addressed claims that fame deprives musicians of their edge: To me, the problem with getting too big is not, innately, you get too big and all of a sudden you stop playing good music. The problem is, when you get too big, you stop doing the things you used to do. Just being big doesnt mean you cant go in your basement and write a good song.

Abbruzzese, meanwhile, good-humoredly noted, when I was younger and I heard about a band selling a million records, I thought the band would get together and jump up and down for at least a minute, and just go, Wow, I cant believe it. But it doesnt happen that way [in this band]. Me, I flip out. I jump up and down by myself. Ultimately, its the balance between painful introspection and jumping up and down that summarizes Pearl Jams artistic philosophy. As Ament expressed it to Spin, Eddies lyrics take you to an open window, and just when youve got one foot out on the ledge, its our job to bring you back in to celebrate.

Selected discography

On Epic

Ten (includes Alive, Evenflow, Jeremy and Black), 1991.
Alive (EP), 1991.
Vs.(includes Leash, W.M.A., Daughter and Elderly Woman Behind the Counter in a Small Town), 1993.

With other artists

Mother Love Bone, Mother Love Bone (includes Gossard and Ament), Stardog/Mercury, 1992.

Temple of the Dog (includes Gossard, Ament and McCready on all tracks; Vedder appears on Hunger Strike), A&M, 1991.

Bob Dylan Thirtieth-Anniversary Tribute (Vedder and McCready appear on Masters of War), Columbia, 1993.

Various, Sweet Relief: A Tribute to Victoria Williams (band appears on Crazy Mary), Thirsty Ear/Chaos, 1993.

Brad (featuring Stone Gossard), Shame, Epic, 1993.

Various, Judgment Night soundtrack (bands appears with Cypress Hill on Real Thing), Epic Soundtrax/lmmortal, 1993.

Various, Stone Free: A Tribute to Jimi Hendrix (includes McCready, Ament and others as M.A.C.C. on Hey Baby/ New Rising Sun), Warner Bros., 1993.

Sources

Billboard, September 11, 1993; October 16, 1993; April 23, 1994.

Circus, March 31, 1992.

Details, August 1992.

Detroit News, June 10, 1993.

Entertainment Weekly, January 31, 1992; July 31, 1992; September 25, 1992; January 8, 1993; April 9, 1993.

FMQB, June 12, 1992.

Guitar Player, February 1992; December 1992; December 1993; January 1994.

Los Angeles Times, October 17, 1993; May 1, 1994.

Melody Maker, February 22, 1992.

Music Express, January 1993.

Musician, July 1992; April 1993.

New Yorker, April 20, 1992.

People, January 25,1993; December 6,1993; December 27, 1993; June 27, 1994.

Pollstar, September 23, 1991.

Pulse!, August 1993.

Reflex, June 1992.

Rolling Stone, July 9, 1992; February 4, 1993; February 18, 1993; March 18, 1993; April 1, 1993; June 10, 1993; July 8, 1993; September 2, 1993; October 28, 1993; November 11, 1993; December 9, 1993; December 23, 1993; January 27, 1994; May 5, 1994.

San Diego Union Tribune, October 14, 1993.

Seattle Times, December 8, 1993.

Spin, September 1991; June, 1992; November 1992; December 1992; January 1993; April 1993; September 1993; June 1994.

Time, October 25, 1993.

USA Today, October 15, 1993.

Variety, November 4, 1993.

Additional information was provided by Epic promotional materials, 1991 and 1993.

Simon Glickman

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Pearl Jam

PEARL JAM

Formed: 1990, Seattle, Washington

Members: Jeff Ament, bass (born Big Sandy, Montana, 10 May 1963); Matt Cameron, drums (born San Diego, California, 28 November 1962); Stone Gossard, guitar (born Seattle, Washington, 20 July 1966); Mike McCready, guitar (born Seattle, Washington, 5 April 1965); Eddie Vedder, vocals (born Chicago, Illinois, 23 December 1964). Former members: Dave Abbruzzese, drums (born 17 May 1968); Jack Irons, drums; Dave Krusen, drums.

Genre: Rock

Best-selling album since 1990: Ten (1991)

Hit songs since 1990: "Alive," "Jeremy," "Better Man"


Pearl Jam is one of the most respected mainstream rock bands to have come out of the 1990s. Because the band was rooted in Seattle at the time grunge rock began to gel, Pearl Jam became known, after Nirvana, as the genre's most popular proponent. As the 1990s wore on the band evolved into a serious arena-rock act. Although their album sales dwindled over the years, nevertheless they retained a dedicated following and the esteem of their older rock peers.


Roots and Early Growth

Pearl Jam's roots date to the mid-1980s, when the bassist Jeff Ament and the guitarist Stone Gossard played in the Seattle band Green River. When Green River split in 1987, Ament and Gossard enlisted the singer Andrew Wood and formed Mother Love Bone. The group released their debut, Apple, on a major label in 1990. Wood died of a heroin overdose soon thereafter, and Ament and Gossard formed another band. This time they brought in the guitarist Mike McCready and the drummer Dave Krusen, and together they recorded a demo. Through a friend it wound up in the hands of the singer Eddie Vedder, who recorded his own lyrics and vocals over the tape and sent it from his home in San Diego back to Seattle. Vedder was quickly hired. In early 1991 the band (then named Mookie Blaylock, after a professional basketball player) began to tour and started recording a debut album Ten, which appeared later that year. During this time the group changed its name to Pearl Jam, reportedly in honor of a favorite recipe by Vedder's great-grandmother Pearl. (Vedder later said the band simply liked the word pearl. )

Spot Light: Pearl Jam Takes on Ticketmaster

A turning point in Pearl Jam's career came when it launched a legal battle against the ticketing giant Ticketmaster, which Time magazine ended up calling "rock 'n' roll's holy war." The band filed a memorandum with the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice in May 1994. After buying Ticketron in 1991, Ticketmaster had become the largest distributor of tickets to major venues in cities nationwide. Pearl Jam charged that Ticketmaster was a monopoly and that the exorbitant service fees it tacked on to each ticket unnecessarily elevated concert prices. In defiance they canceled their 1994 summer tour to promote their album, Vs. Instead, Jeff Ament and Stone Gossard testified at hearings before the U.S. Congress in June. When touring commenced the following year, the band relied on smaller ticketing agencies, which forced them to play alternative venues not contracted with Ticket-master. The tour was limited to only twelve cities, and skipped some major markets. The venues it did play were too small to accommodate fan demand. By then the Justice Department had decided that Ticketmaster did not pose a threat to the concert industry and cited several small competitors that were on the rise to give consumers a choice. Time has borne out Pearl Jam's claims, however. As of 2003 Ticketmaster remained the dominant ticketing agency for all major concerts. The three- to six-dollar service fees that Pearl Jam had initially complained about had risen to eight- to eleven-dollars per ticket.

Pearl Jam ended up relying on Ticketmaster for subsequent tours, but the public battle marked the beginning of the band's self-regulated retreat from the promotional spotlight. The band never appeared to promote a new album or tour on MTV and, except for occasional appearances on The Late Show with David Letterman, avoided talk shows and award ceremonies.

Big Seller

Ten became Pearl Jam's biggest-selling album, and it defined what came to be labeled "grunge." The music's monstrous guitar riffs mirrored 1970s arena rock, and the alienation expressed in Vedder's lyrics was rooted in the postpunk of the 1980s. The antirock attitude and Everyman fashion (flannel and jeans, usually) helped usher in "alternative rock," a newly coined niche in commercial radio that distanced itself from the formulaic and glossy pop metal of the previous decade. Unlike the raw, dense sound of their Seattle peers Alice in Chains and Soundgarden, Pearl Jam's debut featured songs with big, memorable choruses, perfect for radio, like "Alive" and "Jeremy." Their accessibility and earnestness made them one of the most popular band of the grunge era.

Even though Ten was a huge hit and immediately put the band in the public eye, it was still the sound of a band just learning how to make music together. The songwriting credits were strictly divided between Vedder's lyrics and Gossard's music. The two follow-up albumsVs. (1993) and Vitalogy (1994)were stronger and more eclectic, the results of a band whose members had grown comfortable with one another. Vs. is a grunge hallmark for its monster riffs and heartfelt soul. It is stocked with psychologically ripe anthems like "Go" and "Glorified G." The ballad "Elderly Woman Behind the Counter in a Small Town" became a staple of their live shows.

Vitalogy was the band's first album to follow the suicide death of Nirvana front man Kurt Cobain. Battling manic depression and ill prepared to become spokesperson for a generation, Cobain retreated into heroin addiction. While his songs drowned in self-pity, Pearl Jam's were driven by romantic fury, which Cobain routinely mocked. A much darker album than the previous two, Vitalogy mocks the commodification of celebrity by the media, as in "Not for You." "If you hate something / Don't you do it too," Vedder bellows. "Nothingman" is a plaintive ballad about a lost soul, whereas "Immortal" hints at the pedestal Cobain refused to sit on. The album also features experiments with sound collage ("Hey Foxymophandle-mama, That's Me") and a paranoid rant accompanied by accordion ("Bugs"). The album's lasting power is thunderous rockers like "Corduroy," a bracing band mission statement, and "Whipping," which rails against the violence created by the prolife movement. By this time Vedder had become more than just another grunge howler. He was a steely singer who could convey complex emotions and subtlety. Vitalogy is Pearl Jam's epic statement, full of brooding beauty and blazing conviction.


Expanding Audience

As Pearl Jam continued to release albums, they started connecting with the baby-boom generation. Vedder was invited to sing at a concert honoring Bob Dylan, and he filled in for the late Jim Morrison when the Doors were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1993. He toured with Pete Townshend of the Who and Neil Finn of Crowded House and appeared on their respective live albums. A few months after Vedder inducted Neil Young into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995, Pearl Jam and Young headed into a Seattle studio and recorded Mirror Ball, a collection of new Young songs backed by the band. Even as late as 2002, Pearl Jam opened special club dates for the Who.

By the late 1990s Pearl Jam had created a prolific body of work. Grunge had vanished from the spotlight. The best-selling groups of that era either had broken up or had members fall victim to drug-related deaths. Pearl Jam itself was experiencing its share of diminishing salesthe band's 2000 album Binaural sold 715,000 copies whereas Ten had peaked with 8.9 million; despite this decline, the group showed no signs of falling apart. In fact, critics contended that the band had become more tightly knit. Unlike most bands they had undergone hardly any personnel changes except for a continually revolving drummer position, which rotated from Krusen to Matt Chamberlain to Dave Abbruzzese to Jack Irons to Matt Cameron.

No longer faced with the pressure of selling huge amounts of records, the band steadily released albums that were not experimental but were consistently strong collaborative efforts. Starting with Vitalogy in 1994 and continuing with Riot Act in 2002, Pearl Jam cemented its sound, which combined Vedder's abstract lyrics and dark vocal texture with Gossard's and McCready's compelling guitar arrangements, hooks, and monster grooves.

The band endured because they often took breathers for solo projects. In 1991 the entire band plus Soundgarden singer Chris Cornell recorded under the name Temple of the Dog for a tribute album memorializing Wood. Ament formed the band Three Fish and released two albums. McCready formed the Rockfords and released a single album; he also recorded with Layne Staley, the lead singer of Alice in Chains, under the name Mad Season. Vedder played drums on tour for Hovercraft, his wife's band, and also performed solo during political rallies for Ralph Nader, the Green Party presidential candidate in 2000. Gossard released his debut solo album, Bayleaf, in 2001.

Pearl Jam remained a top concert draw, routinely selling out tours in the United States and overseas. Bolstered by a loyal fan base, the band released seventy-two complete shows from its 2000 world tour. Each double- and triple-disc set documented a specific show and was sold at discount price. Fourteen of the shows ended up on the Billboard 200 charts. According to Billboard, the entire project sold 1.29 million copies. The band continued the practice for its 2003 world tour.

One major setback to their 2000 tour was the death of nine fans fatally crushed during a festival set in Roskilde, Denmark, on June 30, 2000. Pearl Jam was cleared of blame and later recorded the song "Love Boat Captain" to reach out to the families of the victims. The band vowed never to play festivals or to allow open floor seating at any of their shows.

Pearl Jam helped to define the grunge rock movement in the early 1990s and evolved into a tightly knit, successful arena rock group. Remaining together while other bands of their ilk fell apart, Pearl Jam took pains to sustain an audience and to demonstrate how a band with multi-platinum success can still put passion into its music.

SELECTIVE DISCOGRAPHY:

Ten (Epic, 1991); Vs. (Epic, 1993); Vitalogy (Epic, 1994); No Code (Epic, 1996); Yield (Epic, 1998); On Two Legs (Epic, 1998); Binaural (Epic, 2000); Riot Act (Epic, 2002).

WEBSITE:

www.pearljam.com.

mark guarino

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Pearl Jam

Pearl Jam

Rock group

licketmaster Feud

Internal Stresses and Mirror Ball

Fighting Bootlegs with Bootlegs

Selected discography

Sources

Pearl Jam, the pearl of the early-1990s grunge explosion in Seattle, was one of the most successful musical acts of the decade. The band was formed in Seattle by guitarist Stone Gossard and bassist Jeff Ament; they approached drummer Jack Irons from the Red Hot Chili Peppers, but he declined to join. However, he recommended a vocalist named Eddie Ved-der. Gossard and Ament sent Vedder a demo tape; Vedder wrote lyrics, added his vocals, and sent it back to them. They encouraged him to come to Seattle, where he joined them, lead guitarist Mike McCready, and drummer Dave Abbruzzese. Their debut album, Ten, was released the same yearit sold a whopping 6.9 million records.

Led by the moody, reclusive Vedder, Pearl Jam swam straight against the current of their success. I dont want to be a star, Vedder was quoted by Brisbanes Courier-Mail as saying. Its not worth it to have my picture taken and my face everywhere. All that you need is the music. Fueled by anti-rock-star fervor, Pearl Jam refused to produce a videos or single for its next record, 1993s Vs. Even without, the album broke a first week sales record, moving 950, 378 copies and eventually selling nearly six million. The band also insisted that its records be released on vinyl as well as CD. Such stances were seen by some observers as typical rock star posturing. Those opinions were belied, however, by the benefit work Pearl Jam did regularly for the pro-abortion groups Rock For Choice and Voters For Choice as well as for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, the Seattle Arts Center and the Rhett Syndrome Foundation.

licketmaster Feud

The most serious test of Pearl Jams principles was set in motion in 1994 when it went head-to-head against Ticketmaster. The group feltpassionatelythat the countrys largest distributor of tickets for sporting and entertainment events was abusing its leading position in the market by charging inflated service fees that frequently boosted the price of tickets by $20. Pearl Jam conceived a low cost tour that would be affordable to its teenaged fans. It instructed Ticketmaster that tickets should cost no more than $18.50, with a maximum service charge of $1.80. Ticketmaster refused, claiming it had to charge at least $2 to cover its costs. Pearl Jam responded by filing a memorandum with the U.S. Department of Justice that accused Ticketmaster of monopolistic behavior.

Without Ticketmaster, it proved nearly impossible to put a concert tour togetherat least in the short run. The 1994 tour was cancelled, losing the band an estimated $9 million. Nonetheless, defying the ticket mega-company touched a nerve. A host of musical superstars, Soul Asylum, Garth Brooks, Neil Young, U2 and Bad Religion, lined up to support Pearl Jams

For the Record

Members include Dave Abbruzzese (born c. 1968; left group 1997), drums; Jeff Ament (born on March 10, 1963 in Big Sandy, MT), bass; Matt Cameron (born on November 28, c. 1964 in San Diego, CA), drums, guitar, bass, keyboards, vocals; Stone Gossard (born July 20, 1965 in Seattle, WA), keyboards, vocals, drums, lyricist, guitar; Jack Irons (left band 1998), drums; Dave Krusen (left band 1991), drums; Mike McCready (born April 5, 1966 in Pensacola, FL), slide guitar, piano, lyricist; Eddie Ved-der (born Edward Louis Seversen III, on December 23, 1964, in Evanston, IL; married Beth Liebling, 1994), lead vocals, lyricist, rhythm guitar.

Band formed in Seattle, WA; signed with Epic Records, released debut album Ten, 1991; tour collapsed during feud with Ticketmaster, Gossard and Ament testifed before Congressional hearing on Ticketmasters monopoly practices, 1994; vinyl Vitalogy hit Billboard charts, 1994; recorded and toured with Neil Young, 1995; pre-release tracks from Yield posted on Internet, 1998; drummer Jack Irons left the band, 1998; Last Kiss recorded for fan club, 1998; double-CD sets of 70 live concerts released, tenth anniversary celebrated at the MGM Grand Garden in Las Vegas, 2000.

Awards: Platinum records: Ten, 1992; Vs., 1993; American Music Awards: favorite new artist, pop/rock and favorite new artist heavy metal/hard rock, 1993; MTV Video Music Awards: best video of the year, best group video, and best metal/hard rock video, Jeremy (director: Mark Pellington); Rolling Stone Artists of the Year, 1994; Grammy Award, National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences, Best Hard Rock Performance for Spin The Black Circle from Vitalogy, 1996.

Addresses: Record company Epic Associated, Sony Music Entertainment Inc., 550 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10022; 2100 Colorado Avenue, Santa Monica, CA 90404. Fan club Pearl Jam Ten Club, P.O. Box 4570, Seattle, WA 98104, website: http://www.tenclub.net/, e-mail:info@tenclub.net. Website Pearl Jam Official Website: http://www.sonymusic.net/artists/PearlJam/index2.html.

position. In June 1994, Gossard and Ament traveled to Washington to testify in Congressional hearings on whether contractual agreements between Ticketmaster and most major stadiums and concert promoters have violated federal antitrust law.

Ament later expressed disappointment over how the hearings went. I really thought we were going go have some impact, he told USA Today. But somehow it didnt feel like they took [the issue] seriously. They seemed like they were more interested in getting autographs for their children. Ultimately nothing came of the Justice Department investigation either. In July of 1995, Attorney General Janet Reno ended the probe, saying there was insufficient evidence. Pearl Jams experience with the government in the Ticket-master affair was partially responsible for their support of Ralph Naders presidential candidacy in 2000. Although the band was sometimes forced to work with specific Ticketmaster venues when it wanted to tour later in 1990s, Pearl Jam went out of its way to avoid using the company whenever possible, coming to an uneasy truce only at the very end of the decade.

Internal Stresses and Mirror Ball

Pearl Jam released Vitalogy in 1994 and like the two earlier records it shot quickly to the top of the Billboard charts. The band released a vinyl version two weeks before the CD came out which made Vitalogy the first vinyl record in years to hit the charts. In its first six months in stores, 4.8 million copies were sold. It was a minor miracle that the record even saw light of day. Their unbelievable success combined with the Ticket-master fight had raised tensions in the band to almost unmanageable levels. Nobody was communicating well at that point, Ament told USA Today admitting that the group had nearly disbanded.

However, by February of 1995 (only two months after Vitalogys release), the band went into the studio to make a record with Neil Young. They had performed together at Youngs induction in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame dinner in New York in January and quickly turned it into a project. Young cancelled his scheduled appearances in the Lollapalooza tour, and within three days of working together in Seattle, they had finished writing five songs. Youngs Mirror Ball was released in the summer of 1995 followed by a joint tour. Young saw no problem playing with musicians old enough to be his children. In many ways, I feel like Pearl Jam is older than me, he told Time. Theres an ageless thing to the way they play.

Pearl Jam continued to push the limits of rock with their own albums. No Code was released in the summer of 1996. It was recorded in a number of citiesChicago, Atlanta, New Orleans, and Seattle. Its songs managed to be gently reflective without losing their underlying tension, in the words of Newsdays Letta Tayler. The record drew a variety of responses from reviewers, from gushing praise to verdicts of unlistenability from others.

Between No Code and 1998s Yield, drummer David Abbruzzese left the band and was replaced by Ved-ders old friend, Irons. Irons was credited by some members with lowering still-latent tensions in Pearl Jam and helping the band work better together. Along with other band members, Irons also contributed a song to Yield. It was the first Pearl Jam album on which Vedder sang lyrics he had not written. Shortly after Yields release, however, Irons left and Pearl Jam signed on yet another drummer, Matt Cameron, formerly of Soundgarden.

In early 1999, Pearl Jam recorded a version of Last Kiss, a ballad done by J. Frank Wilson & the Cavaliers in 1964, which it sent as a single to members of its fan club. By March, Last Kiss was getting regular airplay on Los Angeless KROQ-FM. It quickly spread to other stations in the country, which did not please Pearl Jam, which had refused to release a single since its first album. It found a compromise when it agreed to the singles inclusion on No Boundaries, an Epic Records compilation to benefit Kosovo refugees.

Fighting Bootlegs with Bootlegs

Yield showed the power of the Internet for bootleggers when five excerpts from the album were posted on a fan website. In December of 1997, a Syracuse, New York, radio station played a DAT of the record it had somehow obtained without authorization. A fan taped the broadcast and put parts on his fan site. It came off the radio, so I put it up, said the sites owner. The whole idea of the site is to have rare stuff.

Throughout its career, Pearl Jam has been famous for changing its set list dramatically from show to show and, like the Grateful Dead always did, it always encouraged its fans to tape its shows. It even permitted live FM radio broadcasts of many of its concerts. An unwelcome result of these decisions was a thriving market in expensive Pearl Jam bootlegs. In 2000 the band took an unusual and extreme step against bootlegging. It announced it would release every concert it played in its upcoming European tour. Approximately 70 were originally scheduled, but the tour was abruptly cut short and only 25 sets were released in the fall of 2000. Originally they were meant to be sold only via the Pearl Jam web site, at the bargain price of $10.98 for each two-CD set. However, Epic Records eventually made them available in stores as well, generally at a much higher price. Forty-five shows from a subsequent tour of the United States were later released.

The bands summer of 2000 European tour was cut short because of a tragic incident that struck at a performance at the Roskilde Festival in Denmark in June. Security provided by the promoters was lax and poorly trained in responding to emergency situations. They were completely unprepared for the flood of fans that occurred. Nine people were crushed to death in the mob scene. An investigation of the incident absolved Pearl Jam of any blame for the deaths, but the group returned to America stunned and shaken. Once back, the musicians and crew attended counseling to help them deal with the blow. Reportedly, Vedder was depressed for weeks afterward. They decided to handle safety planning for all future shows themselves.

In October of 2000, Pearl Jam, the grunge rebels of the early 1990s, celebrated their tenth anniversary in an unlikely locale, the MGM Grand Garden in Las Vegas. The show drew fans from all over the country. Despite the party in the glitter and gambling center, Pearl Jam has remained loyal to most of the principles it espoused throughout the decade: It continued to avoid most interviews, it did not release videos and only rarely singles, and it performed on behalf of organizations involved in worthwhile activist efforts. After a few months in stores, Pearl Jams last album, Binaural, had sold only one million units, down significantly from the millions of sales Ten had generated. But Pearl Jam accepted the decline philosophically. Such success couldnt last forever, and anyway, the other grunge bands that had emerged from the Seattle scene were long since history. Pearl Jam were the survivors. What lay ahead in their next ten years? The danger for a band that goes into its second decade is the temptation to start recycling yourself, but weve always been conscious of that, McCready told Robert Hilburn of the Los Angeles Times. We have insisted on moving forward and trying new things. Thats what makes me think there is a lot of life still in the band.

Selected discography

Ten, Epic, 1991.

Vs., Epic, 1993.

Vitalogy, Epic, 1994.

(With Neil Young) Mirror Ball, Reprise, 1995.

No Code, Epic, 1996.

Yield, Epic, 1998.

Live on Two Legs, Epic, 1998.

(Contributor) Last Kiss, No Boundaries, Epic, 1999.

Binaural, Epic, 2000.

Live (series of live double CDs), Epic, 2000.

Sources

Books

Contemporary Musicians, volume 12, Gale Research, 1994.

Periodicals

Courier-Mail (Brisbane, Australia), August 29, 1996.

Los Angeles Times, December 13, 1997; March 28, 1999; October 19, 2000.

Minneapolis Star Tribune, February 3, 1998.

Newsday, February 8, 1995; April 9, 1995; September 30, 1996.

St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 1, 1994.

Time, July 3, 1995.

USA Today, June 8, 1995; June 18, 1995; February 17, 1998.

Gerald E. Brennan

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