Gough, Michael 1916(?)–
GOUGH, Michael 1916(?)–
Surname is pronounced "Goff"; born November 23, 1916 (some sources cite 1917), in Malaya (now Malaysia); son of F. B. and Frances Atkins (maiden name, Bailie) Gough; married Diana Graves (divorced); married Anne Leon (divorced); married Anneke Wills (an actress; divorced); married Henrietta Lawrence; children: Simon (an actor), Jasper, Emma, Polly. Education: Attended Wye Agricultural College; trained for the stage at the Old Vic School, 1936. Politics: "Anarchist."
Addresses: Agent— Peters Fraser & Dunlop, Drury House, 34–43 Russell St., London WC2B 5HA, England.
Career: Actor and director. Appeared in television commercials for Diet Coke, 1989, Amoco gas stations, 1997, and OnStar Vehicle System, 2000.
Member: British Actors' Equity Association, Screen Actors Guild, American Federation of Television and Radio Artists, Green Room Club (London).
Awards, Honors: Television Award, best television actor, British Academy of Film and Television Arts, 1956; Film Award nomination, best supporting actor, British Academy of Film and Television Arts, 1971, for The Go–Between; Antoinette Perry Award, best supporting actor, 1979, for Bedroom Farce; Helen Hayes Award nomination, best foreign supporting actor, and Antoinette Perry Award nomination, best featured actor in a play, 1988, both for Breaking the Code.
(Broadway debut) Philip Vesey, Love of Women, John Golden Theatre, 1937.
(London debut) Hilary and Simon, The Zeal of Thy House, Westminster Theatre, 1938.
Gregory Rose, The Story of an African Farm, New Theatre, London, 1938.
Marchese Carlo di Nollo, This Man Was Henry, Torch Theatre, London, 1940.
Simon Cameron and William Scott, Abraham Lincoln, Westminster Theatre, 1940.
Karl Rolf, The Comic Artist, Queen's Theatre, London, 1940.
Briggs, Thunder Rock, Globe Theatre, London, 1940.
Dice player, Jacobowsky and the Colonel, Piccadilly Theatre, London, 1945.
Fag, The Rivals, Criterion Theatre, London, 1945.
Gerard, But for the Grace of God, St. James Theatre, London, 1946.
Nicolas Devize, The Lady's Not for Burning, Arts Theatre, London, 1948.
Hugo, Crime Passionnel, Lyric Hammersmith Theatre, then Garrick Theatre, both London, 1948.
Evan, September Tide, Aldwych Theatre, London, 1948.
Hugh Joyce, Fading Mansion, Duchess Theatre, London, 1949.
Gerard, The Way Things Go, Phoenix Theatre, London, 1950.
Laertes, Hamlet, New Theatre, 1951.
Julien, Colombe, New Theatre, 1951.
Nicky Lancaster, The Vortex, Criterion Theatre, 1952.
Tony Lack, The Burning Glass, Apollo Theatre, London, 1954.
Michel, The Immoralist, Arts Theatre, 1954.
Peter Manson, The Burning Boat, Court Theatre, London, 1955.
Jani, An Act of Madness, Q Theatre, London, 1955.
Gregers Werle, The Wild Duck, Saville Theatre, London, 1955.
Admiral, Fanny, Drury Lane Theatre, London, 1956.
Joe Leonard, Roseland, St. Martin's Theatre, London, 1958.
Howard Holt, Something to Hide, St. Martin's Theatre, 1958.
Gustav, Creditors, Lyric Hammersmith Theatre, 1959.
Duddard, Rhinoceros, Strand Theatre, London, 1960.
Joe, This Year, Next Year, Vaudeville Theatre, London, 1960.
Joachim, Judith, Her Majesty's Theatre, London, 1962.
Brecht on Brecht, Royal Court Theatre, London, 1962.
Mr. Luxton, Jackie the Jumper, Royal Court Theatre, 1963.
Theseus, Phedre, Arts Theatre, Cambridge, England, 1963.
Stage manager, Six Characters in Search of an Author, May Fair Theatre, London, 1963.
Theo Besson, Maigret and the Lady, Strand Theatre, 1965.
Teddy Lloyd, The Prime of Miss Jean Brody, Wyndham's Theatre, London, 1967.
Dr. Parks, Captain Oates' Left Sock, Royal Court Theatre, 1969.
Pastor Manders, Ghosts, Arts Theatre, Cambridge, 1972.
Edward Carpenter, Free for All, Crucible Theatre, Sheffield, England, 1973.
Title role, King Lear, Belgrade Theatre, Coventry, England, 1974.
Sir Richard Metcalfe, Phaedra Britannica, National Theatre Company, Old Vic Theatre, 1975.
Events in an Upper Room, Belgrade Theatre, then ICA Theatre, London, both 1975.
Glen, Watch It Come Down, National Theatre Company, Old Vic Theatre, then Lyttelton Theatre, London, both 1976.
Soldan of Egypt, Tamburlaine the Great, National Theatre Company, Olivier Theatre, London, 1976.
Count, Il campiello, National Theatre Company, Olivier Theatre, 1976.
He, Counting the Ways, National Theatre Company, Olivier Theatre, 1976.
Ernest, Bedroom Farce, National Theatre Company, Lyttelton Theatre, 1977.
John the Baptist, The Passion, National Theatre Company, Cottesloe Theatre, London, 1977.
Victor Marsden, Love Letters on Blue Paper, National Theatre Company, Cottesloe Theatre, 1978.
Lark Rise, National Theatre Company, Cottesloe Theatre, 1978.
Ernest, Bedroom Farce, Brooks Atkinson Theatre, New York City, 1979.
Aubrey Skinner, Before the Party, Queen's Theatre, 1980.
Aren't We All?, Haymarket Theatre, London, 1984.
A Patriot for Me, Haymarket Theatre, 1985.
Voice of guard, Kiss of the Spider Woman, Society Hill Playhouse, Philadelphia, PA, 1987.
Dillwyn Knox, Breaking the Code, Haymarket Theatre, then Eisenhower Theatre, John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Washington, DC, later Neil Simon Theatre, New York City, all 1987.
Let Us Go Then You and I: A T. S. Eliot Programme, Lyric Theatre, London, 1987.
Misalliance, McCadden Place Theatre, Hollywood, CA, 1993.
Made stage debut with Old Vic Theatre Company in various small roles, 1936–37; appeared with Liverpool Old Vic Company and at Oxford Playhouse, Oxford, England, 1945.
Idiot's Delight, British cities, 1939.
Craven House, British cities, 1946.
Plinio Ceccho, Who? Where? What? Why?, British cities, 1963.
The Hollow Crown, U.S. cities, 1963.
A Slight Ache, British Council, South American cities, 1969.
The Lover, British Council, South American cities, 1969.
The Public Eye, British Council, South American cities, 1969.
The Village Wooing, British Council, South American cities, 1969.
Offer of a Dream, Repertory Players, Comedy Theatre, London, 1963.
(Film debut) Nicholai, Anna Karenina (also known as Tolstoy's Anna Karenina ), British Lion, 1948.
Lawrence Fury, Blanche Fury, Universal, 1948.
Captain Dick Stewart, Hour of Glory (also known as The Small Back Room ), British Lion, 1949.
Prince Charles, Saraband (also known as Saraband for Dead Lovers ), Eagle–Lion, 1949.
(Uncredited) Ha' Penny Breeze, Associated British Pathe, 1950.
Alec Kyle, No Resting Place, Classic, 1950.
Maurice Edwards, Blackmailed, General Films Distributors, 1951.
Martin Raynor, Night Was Our Friend, Monarch, 1951.
Michael Corland and narrator, The Man in the White Suit, Universal, 1952.
Duke of Buckingham, The Sword and the Rose (also known as When Knighthood Was in Flower ), RKO Radio Pictures, 1953.
Mr. Lloyd, Twice upon a Time, Fine Arts Cinema, 1953.
Duke of Montrose, Rob Roy, The Highland Rogue (also known as Rob Roy ), RKO Radio Pictures, 1954.
Last Reunion, 1955.
Dighton, first murderer, Richard III, Lopert, 1956.
Flying instructor, Reach for the Sky, J. Arthur Rank, 1956.
Andoni Zoidakis, Night Ambush (also known as Ill Met by Moonlight and Intelligence Service ), J. Arthur Rank, 1957.
Arthur Holmwood, The Horror of Dracula (also known as Dracula 1958 and Dracula ), Universal, 1958.
Abel, The Horse's Mouth, United Artists, 1958.
Geoffrey Carter, The House in the Woods, Archway, 1959.
Edmond Bancroft, Horrors of the Black Museum (also known as Crime in the Museum of Horrors ), American International Pictures, 1959.
Kingsley Beauchamp, Model for Murder, Cinema Associates, 1960.
Dr. Charles Decker, Konga, American International Pictures, 1961.
Tamise, I Like Money (also known as Mr. Topaze ), Twentieth Century–Fox, 1962.
Lord Ambrose D'Arcy, The Phantom of the Opera, Universal, 1962.
Fisk the butler, What a Carve Up! (also known as No Place Like Homicide ), Embassy Pictures, 1962.
Michael Conrad, Black Zoo, Allied Artists, 1963.
Cartwright, Tamahine, Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer, 1964.
Eric Landor, Dr. Terror's House of Horrors (also known as The Blood Suckers ), Regal, 1965.
Robert Hilary, Game for Three Losers (also known as Edgar Wallace Mysteries: Game for Three Losers ), Avco–Embassy, 1965.
Auctioneer, The Skull, Paramount, 1965.
Donald Edwards, Candidate for Murder (also known as Edgar Wallace Mysteries: Candidate for Murder ), Lester Schoenfield, 1966.
Dorando, Berserk (also known as Circus of Terror ), Columbia, 1967.
Monj, They Came from Beyond Space, Embassy, 1967.
Jeremiah, Un soir, un train (also known as One Night ... A Train and De Trein der traggheid ), 1968.
Mad monk, A Walk with Love and Death, Twentieth Century–Fox, 1969.
Tom Brangwen, Women in Love, United Artists, 1969.
Elder, The Crimson Cult (also known as The Crimson Altar, The Crimson Cult, The Reincarnation, Spirit of the Dead, Witch House, and Curse of the Crimson Altar ), American International Pictures, 1970.
Metellus Cimber, Julius Caesar, American International Pictures, 1970.
Sam Murdock, Trog, Warner Bros., 1970.
Walter Eastwood, Crucible of Horror (also known as The Corpse and Velvet House ), Grand National, 1971.
Mr. Maudsley, The Go–Between, Columbia, 1971.
Norfolk, Henry VIII and His Six Wives, Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer/EMI, 1972.
Monsieur Gaudier, Savage Messiah, Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer, 1972.
(Uncredited) Emeric Belasco, The Legend of Hell House, Twentieth Century–Fox, 1973.
Dr. Storm, Horror Hospital (also known as Computer Killers and Doctor Bloodbath ), Hallmark, 1973.
Sagredo, Galileo (also known as Galileo Galilei ), American Film Theatre, 1975.
Alexander Yorke, Satan's Slave (also known as Evil Heritage ), Crown, 1976.
Sir Baldwin, L'amour en Question (also known as Love in Question ), EFC, 1978.
Harrington, The Boys from Brazil, Twentieth Century–Fox, 1978.
David Ball, Venom, Paramount, 1982.
Frank Carrington, The Dresser, Columbia, 1983.
Kerimoglu, Memed My Hawk (also known as The Lion and the Hawk ), Filmworld, 1984.
Dr. Ambrose, Oxford Blues, Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer/United Artists, 1984.
Dr. Paul Flammond, Top Secret!, Paramount, 1984.
Voice, Stranger Than Fiction, British Film Institute, 1985.
Lord Delamere, Out of Africa, Universal, 1985.
Cardinal Del Monte, Caravaggio, British Film Institute, 1986.
Vater, Maschenka (also known as Mashenka ), Goldcrest, 1987.
Sir Bernard Hemmings, The Fourth Protocol, Lorimar, 1987.
Schoonbacher, The Serpent and the Rainbow, Universal, 1988.
Alfred the butler, Batman, Warner Bros., 1989.
Douglas Brodie, Strapless, 1989.
Voices, The Garden, International Film Circuit, 1990.
Lord Goddard, Let Him Have It (also known as L'age de vivre ), 1991.
The toymaker, "Celestial Toymaker," Doctor Who: The Hartnell Years, 1991.
Alfred the butler, Batman Returns, Warner Bros., 1992.
Bertrand Russell, Wittgenstein, Cinemagi, 1993.
Magistrate Boniface, The Advocate (also known as The Hour of the Pig ), British Broadcasting Corp., 1993.
Henry Van Der Luyden, The Age of Innocence, Columbia, 1993.
Don Manuel, Uncovered (also known as La tabla de Flandes ), CiBy 2000, 1994.
Jean de Remy, Nostradamus (also known as Nostradamus—–Prophezeiungen des Schreckens ), Orion Home Video, 1994.
Sir Ralph Unwin, A Village Affair, Anchor Bay Entertainment, 1994.
Alfred Pennyworth, Batman Forever (also known as Forever ), Warner Bros., 1995.
Alfred Pennyworth, Batman and Robin, Warner Bros., 1997.
Judge, What Rats Won't Do, PolyGram Filmed Entertainment, 1998.
Nikolay 1947, The Whisper, 1998.
Feers, Varya, 1999.
Count, St. Ives (also known as All for Love ), Buena Vista Home Video, 1999.
Notary James Harenbrook, Sleepy Hollow, Paramount, 1999.
Feers, The Cherry Orchard (also known as O byssinokipos and La cerisaie ), Kino International, 1999.
Himself/Notary James Hardenbrook, Sleepy Hollow: Behind the Legend, Paramount, 2000.
Television Appearances; Series:
S. to S., 1974.
Uncle Theodor, The Little Vampire (also known as Der Kleine Vampir ), 1986.
Philip Ogleby, Inspector Morse, Series I, 1988.
Television Appearances; Miniseries:
Dr. David Livingston, The Search for the Nile, BBC, 1971, then NBC, 1972.
Dr. Fletcher, QB VII, ABC, 1974.
Latouche, Notorious Woman, 1974.
Dr. Richard Pankhurst, Shoulder to Shoulder, PBS, 1975.
Mikhel, Smiley's People, syndicated, 1982.
Dr. Grant, Brideshead Revisited, PBS, 1982.
Dr. Rust, Inside the Third Reich, ABC, 1982.
Sir Jenner Halliday, "The Citadel," Masterpiece Theatre, PBS, 1982.
Cardinal, Mistral's Daughter, CBS, 1984.
Messenger, Lace II, ABC, 1985.
Philip Ogleby, "The Silent World of Nicholas Quinn," Mystery, PBS, 1988.
Reader (Eliot segment), The Modern World: Ten Great Writers, 1988.
Maurice James Kingsley, Blackeyes, 1989.
Professor Charlie Rampling, After the War, 1989.
Andrei Zorin, Sleepers, PBS, 1991.
Television Appearances; Movies:
Albert, BBC, 1951.
"Julius Caesar," World Theatre, BBC, 1959.
Reverend Claude Bell, The Poisoned Earth, 1961.
DeVillefort, Count of Monte Cristo, 1964.
March Hare, Alice in Wonderland, BBC, 1966.
Mr. Bennet, Pride and Prejudice, 1967.
Sir Anthony Eden, Suez 1956, BBC, 1979.
Judge, Witness for the Prosecution, CBS, 1982.
Mr. Poole, A Christmas Carol, CBS, 1984.
Professor Loubser, The Biko Inquest, 1984.
Archbishop, Arthur the King (also known as Merlin & the Sword ), CBS, 1985.
Fred, Shattered Spirits, ABC, 1986.
Albani, Cariani and the Courtesans, 1987.
Roy Brookner, The Shell Seekers, ABC, 1989.
Mr. Maggs, The Mountain and the Molehill, A&E, 1991.
Barnaby, The Haunting of Helen Walker (also known as The Turn of the Screw ), CBS, 1995.
Leo Tolstoy, Young Indiana Jones: Travels with Father, The Family Channel, 1996.
Television Appearances; Specials:
Mr. Ramsay, To the Lighthouse, PBS, 1984.
Campion, The Case of the Late Pig, PBS and BBC, 1989.
Voice, The Secret of the U–110 (documentary), The History Channel, 2001.
Television Appearances; Episodic:
Mr. Partridge, "The Case of the Perfect Husband," Sherlock Holmes, 1955.
"The Outcast," Assignment Foreign Legion, 1957.
"Treasure Island," The DuPont Show of the Month, 1960.
Boland, "The Edge and the Point," The Adventures of Robin Hood, 1960.
Colin Phillips, "The Imprudent Politician," The Saint, 1964.
Reverend Austen Anderson, "Flowers of Havoc," Undermind, ABC TV, 1965.
Konev, "Seat of Power," The Man in Room 17, Granada TV, 1965.
Dr. Clement Armstrong, "The Cybernauts," The Avengers, ABC TV, 1965.
Doctor, "The Girl Who Loved Robots," Wednesday Play, 1965.
Eliut, "Days to Come," Play of the Month, 1966.
The Celestial Toymaker, "The Celestial Toymaker," Doctor Who, BBC, 1966.
Nutski, "The Correct Way to Kill," The Avengers, ABC TV, 1967.
"Play with a Tiger," Theatre 625, 1967.
"Standing by for Santa Claus," Thirty–Minute Theatre, 1968.
Royal, "Eve," Journey to the Unknown, 1968.
Joss, "Happening," The Champions, ITC, 1968.
Sir Benjamin Dyce, "Views of a Dead Planet," Moonbase 3, BBC, 1973.
Shkoder, "One and One Makes One," The Protectors, ITC, 1973.
"The Trip to Jerusalem," Centre Play, 1975.
Hower, "Volcano," Blake's 7, BBC, 1980.
"The Fourth Man," The Agatha Christie Hour, 1982.
Professor Whittingham, "The Lost Chord," Strangers, Granada TV, 1982.
Professors Burrows, "Another Flip for Dominick," Play for Today, 1982.
Belarius, "Cymbeline," The Complete Dramatic Works of Shakespeare, 1982.
Councillor Hedin, "Arc of Infinity," Doctor Who, BBC, 1983.
Philip Ogelby, "The Silent World of Nicholas Quinn," Inspector Morse, 1987.
Donald Vannerman, "Best Left Buried," Boon, Central TV, 1990.
Voice of Professor Henry Moss, "A Knight of Shadows: Part 1," Justice League (animated), Cartoon Network, 2002.
Also appeared in Crown Court, Granada TV.
"Gough, Michael 1916(?)–." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gough-michael-1916
"Gough, Michael 1916(?)–." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. . Retrieved April 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gough-michael-1916
Addresses: Agent— Sandie Schnarr Talent Agency, 8500 Melrose Ave., Suite 212, West Hollywood, CA 90069.
Career: Actor and voice artist.
Supporting cast, The Wizard of Speed and Time, Shapiro–Glickenhaus Entertainment, 1989.
Voice of second teacher, Little Nemo: Adventures in Slumberland (animated), 1992.
Voice of Gopher, Winnie the Pooh: Seasons of Giving (also known as Disney's Winnie the Pooh: Seasons of Giving ), Buena Vista Home Video, 1999.
Voice of Joe, Lady and the Tramp II: Scamp's Adventure (animated), Walt Disney Home Video, 2001.
Automated dialogue replacement voice, Iron Will, Buena Vista, 1994.
Television Appearances; Series:
Voice of Gopher, The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh (animated), ABC, 1988.
Voice of Colonel Spigot, Tale Spin (animated), 1990.
Voice, James Bond, Jr., syndicated, 1991.
Voice, Skeleton Warriors (animated), CBS, 1994.
Voice of Zazu, Timon and Pumbaa (also known as Lion King's Timon & Pumbaa ), The Disney Channel, 1995.
Voice, What–A–Mess, ABC, 1995.
Voice of Raphael, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (animated; also known as Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: The Series ), CBS, 1995–1996.
Voice of Don Diego/Zorro, Zorro (animated; also known as The New Adventures of Zorro ), syndicated, 1997.
Voice, Invasion America (animated), The WB, 1998.
Voice of Gopher, House of Mouse (animated), 2001.
Television Appearances; Movies:
Fred, Shattered Spirits, ABC, 1986.
Voice of Theodore McGill, Rocket Power: Race Across New Zealand (animated), Nickelodeon, 2002.
Television Appearances; Pilots:
Voice, Captain Sturdy (animated), Cartoon Network, 2001.
Television Appearances; Specials:
Voice of Gopher, Winnie the Pooh & Christmas Too (animated), ABC, 1991.
Voice, The Wild West (documentary), syndicated, 1993.
Voice of Gopher, Boo to You Too! Winnie the Pooh (animated), CBS, 1996.
Voice of Gopher, A Winnie the Pooh Thanksgiving (animated), ABC, 1998.
Television Appearances; Episodic:
Voice of Boatman Jacobi/Professor Eric, "More Than Zero," The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest (animated), Cartoon Network and syndicated, 1997.
Voice, "Mole People," Extreme Ghostbusters (animated), 1997.
Also appeared in General Hospital, ABC.
Television Work; Series:
Additional voices, Bonkers (animated; also known as Disney's Bonkers ), syndicated, 1993.
Additional voices, The Twisted Adventures of Felix the Cat (animated; also known as The Twisted Tales of Felix the Cat ), CBS, 1995.
Voice of Bessus, Soviet Strike, 1996.
Voice of Deckard Cain the Elder, Diablo, 1996.
Voices of Jack Thayer, Francis Dyke, Frank Prentice, Arthur Lewis, and James Paintin, Titanic Explorer (also known as James Cameron's Titanic Explorer ), Twentieth Century–Fox, 1997.
Voice, StarCraft, 1998.
Voice of Joe, Tonka Raceway, 1998.
StarCraft: Brood War (also known as StarCraft Expansion Set: Brood War ), 1998.
Additional voices, Spyro the Dragon, 1998.
Voices of Husam, Krestor, and Marek, Forgotten Realms: Baldur's Gate, Interplay Productions, 1998.
Voice of Gohida, Tenchu 2: Birth of the Stealth Assassins, Activision, 2000.
Voices of Chief Miles O'Brien, Obsidian Order Male, and Bajoran Monk, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine— The Fallen, 2000.
Voice, Sacrifice, Interplay Productions, 2000.
Star Trek: Starfleet Command: Volume II: Empires at War, Interplay Productions, 2000.
Voice, Forgotten Realms: Baldur's Gate II—Shadows, 2000.
Voice of Deckard Cain, Diablo II: Lord of Destruction, 2001.
Voice of Franklin, Arcanum: Of Steamworks and Magick Obscura, 2001.
(English version) Voice of Russian soldier #4, Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty (also known as MGS2 and Metal Gear Solid 2 ), Konami Corp., 2001.
Voices of airspeeder pilot, battle droid, rebel hovercraft captain, Sith knight, fast bike driver, and Zalor minister, Star Wars: Galactic Battlegrounds, LucasArts Entertainment Corp., 2001.
Voices of Rodian 2 and Stormtrooper officer 2, Star Wars: Jedi Knight II—Jedi Outcast, LucasArts Entertainment Corp., 2002.
(Uncredited) Voice, Bloody Roar Extreme (also known as Bloody Roar: Primal Fury ), Activision, 2002.
Voice, WarCraft III: Reign of Chaos, 2002.
Voice of Russian soldier, Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance, Konami Corp., 2002.
Voices of Canid crew & Captain, commander, Treasure Planet: Battle at Procyon, Disney Interactive, 2002.
Additional voices, Solider of Fortune II: Double Helix, Activision, 2002.
(English version) Voice of Gohida, Tenchu: Wrath of Heaven, Activision, 2003.
Additional voices, Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic, LucasArts Entertainment Company, 2003.
Voice of Captain Prince and additional voices, Call of Duty, Activision, 2003.
Additional voices, True Crime: Streets of LA, Activision, 2003.
"Gough, Michael." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gough-michael
"Gough, Michael." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. . Retrieved April 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gough-michael