Skip to main content
Select Source:

Richards, I. A.

I. A. Richards: (Ivor Armstrong Richards), 1893–1979, English literary critic. Richards was one of the founders of the school of interpretation known as the New Criticism, which stressed an awareness of textual and psychological nuance and ambiguity when studying literature. He advocated this viewpoint in influential studies including The Meaning of Meaning (with C. K. Ogden, 1923), Principles of Literary Criticism (1924), and Practical Criticism (1929) (see criticism). Richards's own poetry included Internal Colloquies: Poems and Plays (1973) and Beyond (1974) Richards was well-known for his creation, with Charles Kay Ogden, of a simplified language called Basic English, which consists of a primary vocabulary of 850 words. He championed its adoption in books such as Basic English and Its Uses (1943) and So Much Nearer: Essays Toward a World English (1968), and in his teaching at Cambridge and Harvard; he even translated Plato's Republic into Basic English.

See biography by J. P. I. Russo (1989).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Richards, I. A.." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Richards, I. A.." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 29, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/richards-i

"Richards, I. A.." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 29, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/richards-i

Richards, I.A.

Richards, I.A. ( Ivor Armstrong) (1893–1979) English literary critic and theorist. Richard's emphasis on close reading and verbal analysis of literary works is expounded in The Principles of Literary Criticism (1924) and Practical Criticism (1929). See also literary criticism

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Richards, I.A.." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Richards, I.A.." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 29, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/richards-ia

"Richards, I.A.." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved June 29, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/richards-ia