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map

map / map/ • n. 1. a diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features, cities, roads, etc.: a street map | fig. expansion of the service sector is reshaping the map of employment. ∎  a two-dimensional representation of the positions of stars or other astronomical objects. ∎  a diagram or collection of data showing the spatial arrangement or distribution of something over an area: an electron density map. ∎  Biol. a representation of the sequence of genes on a chromosome or of bases in a DNA or RNA molecule. ∎  Math. another term for mapping. 2. inf., dated a person's face. • v. (mapped , map·ping ) [tr.] represent (an area) on a map; make a map of: inaccessible parts will be mapped from the air. ∎  record in detail the spatial distribution of (something): the project to map the human genome. ∎  [tr.] associate (a group of elements or qualities) with an equivalent group, according to a particular formula or model: the transformational rules map deep structures into surface structures. ∎  Math. associate each element of (a set) with an element of another set. ∎  [intr.] be associated or linked to something: it is not obvious that the subprocesses of language will map onto individual brain areas. PHRASES: off the map (of a place) very distant or remote: just a hick town, right off the map. put something on the map bring something to prominence: the exhibition put Cubism on the map. wipe something off the map obliterate something totally.PHRASAL VERBS: map something out plan a route or course of action in detail: I mapped out a route over familiar country near home.DERIVATIVES: map·less adj. map·pa·ble adj. map·per n.

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"map." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"map." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/map-2

"map." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/map-2

map

map, conventionalized representation of spatial phenomena on a plane surface. Unlike photographs, maps are selective and may be prepared to show various quantitative and qualitative facts, including boundaries, physical features, patterns, and distribution. Each point on such a map corresponds to a geographical position in accordance with a definite scale and projection (see map projection). Maps may also represent such comparative data as industrial power, population density, and birth and death rates. The earliest European printed maps (2d half of the 15th cent.) were made from woodcuts; maps are now reproduced by several processes, including photoengraving, wax engraving, and lithography. See also chart.

Ancient Mapmaking

Cartography, or mapmaking, antedates even the art of writing. Diagrams of areas familiar to them were made by Marshall Islanders, Eskimo, Native Americans, and many other preliterate peoples. Maps drawn by ancient Babylonians, Egyptians, and Chinese have been found. The oldest known map, now on exhibition in the Semitic Museum of Harvard, is a Babylonian clay tablet dating from c.2500 BC Our present system of cartography was established by the Greeks, who remained unexcelled until the 16th cent. Scientific measurements of earth distances by means of meridians and parallels were first made by Eratosthenes (3d cent. BC). Of the ancient scholars, the mathematician and geographer Ptolemy (2d cent. AD), expounded on the principles of cartography; his system was followed for many centuries, although his basic error in underestimating the earth's size was not corrected until the age of Mercator. Only the Mediterranean world was represented with any accuracy in early maps. During the Middle Ages, while European cartographers produced artistic, idealized maps, Arabic mapmakers, notably Idrisi (12th cent.), carried on the work of Ptolemy, and the Chinese produced the first printed maps.

Cartography in the Sixteenth through Eighteenth Centuries

Three major events contributed to the spectacular renaissance of cartography in Europe around 1500—the rediscovery and translation into Latin of Ptolemy's Geographia, the invention of printing and engraving, and the great voyages of discovery. This renaissance was manifested by the work of Gerardus Mercator in the first modern world atlas, published in 1570 by Abraham Ortelius, and by the decorative, paintinglike maps of the French Sanson family (17th cent.). Improvements in the methods of surveying and increased emphasis on accuracy led to the noted work in the 18th cent. of the Frenchmen Guillaume Delisle and J. B. B. d'Anville, the founders of modern cartography. After 1750 many European governments undertook the systematic mapping of their countries. The first important national survey was made in France (published 1756), followed by the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain (published 1801) and the topographic survey of Switzerland (organized 1832). In the United States the U.S. Geological Survey (established 1879) has mapped much of the country on varying scales.

During the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

During the 19th cent. the demand for national maps was fulfilled, and famous world atlases were published. But with the advent of the 20th cent. the need arose for an international map of the world on a uniform scale. Accordingly, at several meetings of the International Geographical Congress (1891, 1909, 1913), the German Albrecht Penck presented and perfected plans for a world map on a scale of 1:1,000,000, to consist of about 1,500 sheets, each covering four degrees of latitude and six degrees of longitude in a modified conic projection. Uniformity of lettering and the use of layer tints to indicate relief were agreed upon. However, only part of the work has been completed. The greatest single contribution to the map of the world was made by the American Geographical Society of New York, which completed (1945) its 107-sheet Map of Hispanic America.

During World Wars I and II the science and art of mapping were greatly advanced. Modern technology, using remote sensing by airborne and satellite radar, as well as devices called multispectral scanners, has made it possible to quickly collect and update information for mapmaking. Computerized geographic information systems, first developed in the 1960s, now are used to link information stored in databases to maps, increasing and varying the amount of information a map can display. Such systems are used to produce maps for business use, law enforcement, natural-disaster prediction, and many other purposes. In recent years the critical cartography movement, led by a group of British scholars, notably the late J. B. Harley, has studied maps as sociopolitical constructs that interpret reality and reflect the historical power structure as well as their makers' ideas about the world.

Bibliography

See T. W. Birch, Maps: Topographical and Statistical (2d ed. 1964); D. Greenhood, Mapping (rev. ed. 1964); F. J. Monkhouse and H. R. Wilkinson, Maps and Diagrams (1971); N. J. W. Thrower, Maps and Man (1972); G. R. Crone, Maps and Their Makers (5th ed. 1978); L. Bagrow and R. A. Skelton, History of Cartography (enl. 2d ed. 1985, repr. 2010); M. Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps (1991); A. H. Robinson et al., Elements of Cartography (6th ed. 1995); J. Black, Maps and Politics (1997); M. H. Edney, Mapping an Empire (1997); J. B. Harley and D. Woodward, ed., History of Cartography (2 vol., 1987–); J. B. Harley, The New Nature of Maps (2001); J. Black, Maps and Politics (2001); S. Schulten, The Geographical Imagination in America, 1880–1950 (2001); P. Whitfield, The Image of the World (upd. ed. 2010); J. Brotton, A History of the World in 12 Maps (2013).

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"map." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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map

map Graphic representation of part or all of the Earth's surface. Maps are usually printed on a flat surface using various kinds of projections based on land surveys, aerial photographs and other sources.

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map

map sb. XVI. — medL. mappa, short for mappa mundī ‘sheet of the world’, i.e. mappa (in classL. table-cloth, NAPKIN), mundī g. of mundus world.
Hence vb. XVI.

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"map." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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map

map
1. (mapping) See function.

2. See memory map.

3. See bitmap, pixmap.

4. See Karnaugh map.

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"map." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"map." A Dictionary of Computing. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/map-0

MAP

MAP Acronym for Manufacturing Automation Protocol. A set of protocols originally devised by a group of US manufacturers of mechanical engineering products. This original group has been expanded to include other parties, and the protocols have become ISO OSI (open systems interconnection) standards. The protocols are intended to facilitate the exchange of data relevant to mechanical-engineering design and manufacture. They cover not only the problems of process control and assembly within a single manufacturing plant, but also the exchange of design and manufacturing data between a main contractor and his subcontractors. See also TOP, STEP.

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MAP

MAP • abbr. modified American plan (see American plan).

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map

mapbap, cap, chap, clap, crap, dap, entrap, enwrap, flap, frap, gap, giftwrap, hap, Jap, knap, lap, Lapp, map, nap, nappe, pap, rap, sap, schappe, scrap, slap, snap, strap, tap, trap, wrap, yap, zap •stopgap • mayhap • mishap • madcap •blackcap • redcap • kneecap •handicap •nightcap, whitecap •snowcap, toecap •foolscap • hubcap • skullcap •dunce cap • handclap • dewlap •mudflap • thunderclap • burlap •bitmap • catnap • kidnap • Saranwrap •mantrap • claptrap • deathtrap •chinstrap • jockstrap • mousetrap •bootstrap • suntrap • firetrap •heeltap

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"map." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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MAP

MAP major air pollutant
• Computing Manufacturing Automation Protocol
• maximum average price
• Med. mean arterial (blood) pressure
• medical aid post
• Member of the Association of Project Managers
• Ministry of Aircraft Production
• modified American plan (payment system in US hotels)

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"MAP." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"MAP." The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/map