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Niemeyer Soares, Oscar

Oscar Niemeyer Soares (ŏŏskär´ nē´mīər sŏŏä´rəs), 1907–2012, Brazil's foremost 20th-century architect, b. Rio de Janeiro. Influenced by Le Corbusier, Niemeyer developed an architecture noted for its daring conception, purity of line, and formal lyricism; it is frequently characterized by curving forms and soaring spans of reinforced concrete. Offering an alternative to the strict rectangles of the International style, he frequently worked with organic shapes and is often credited with introducing sensuality into modernist architecture.

Along with Le Corbusier, Niemeyer was one of the chief collaborators in the design of the ministry of education in Rio de Janeiro (1937–43), which marked the first use of the modernist curtain wall. With Lúcio Costa and P. L. Wiener, Niemeyer designed the Brazilian Pavilion for the New York World's Fair in 1939. For Pampulha, in Belo Horizonte, he planned several major buildings, notably its concrete and glass casino, which was turned into an art museum in 1946. In 1947 he collaborated on the design for the United Nations headquarters in New York City.

In his most important project, Niemeyer directed the creation of Brazil's new capital, Brasília (1950–60), within Costa's master plan. His remarkable original work on this project brought him enormous acclaim, and it is usually considered his masterpiece. In later years, the city was widely criticized as a mistake in urban planning, ill-conceived because it has no relation to its undeveloped jungle site in central Brazil or, with its wide soulless spaces, to the patterns of life in Brazil. Nonetheless, the government buildings designed by Niemeyer—particularly the crownlike cathedral, the presidential residence, the foreign ministry, and the supreme court building—continue to win high praise for their graceful moderninsm.

His leftist associations caused him to fall out of favor in Brazil after the 1964 military coup, and he subsequently worked mainly in Europe, designing the headquarters for the French Communist party in Paris (1965), the Mondadori Publishing House in Milan (1968), Constantine Univ. in Algeria (1969), and the House of Culture in Le Havre, France (1983). He returned to Brazil in the early 1980s. Later buildings include the Museum of Contemporary Art in Niterói, Brazil (1996) and the National Museum and National Library in Brasilia (2006). In 1988 Niemeyer was awarded the Pritzker Prize. The Oscar Niemeyer Foundation (2010), which houses models and drawings from his career, is in a building outside Rio that he designed.

See his memoir (tr. 2000); biographical studies by S. Papadaki (1960) and R. Spade, ed. (1971); studies by D. K. Underwood (1994), M. Salvaing (2002), A. Hess (2006), S. Phillippou (2008), and P. Jodidio (2013).

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"Niemeyer Soares, Oscar." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Niemeyer, Oscar

Niemeyer, Oscar (1907– ). Brazilian architect who joined the group working with Le Corbusier on the Ministry of Education and Health Building, Rio de Janeiro (1936–45). Although an early devotee of International Modernism, he moved away from rectilinear forms with his Casino, Yacht Club, and Restaurant, and São Francisco Chapel, in Pampúlha, Belo Horizonte (1942–7). Such departures from Modernist orthodoxy led to hostility from critics such as Max Bill, but nevertheless in 1957 Niemeyer was appointed Chief Architect to the new City of Brasília, the layout of which had been devised by Costa. The main buildings, including the centrally planned Cathedral, Palaces of the Three Powers (Presidential, Supreme Court, and Congress), and Government Buildings, were all by Niemeyer (1957–64). Among his other works may be cited the Communist Party offices, Paris (1965–75), and the Mondadori Building, Milan (1968–75), the House of Culture, Le Havre (1972–82), the FATA Building, Turin (1977–80—with Morandi), and the Latin American Parliament Building, São Paulo (1989–92). He brought out a volume on his life in Brazil (1961) as well as other works.

Bibliography

Botey (1996);
Fils (ed.) (1982, 1988);
Hornig (1981);
Lampugnani (ed.) (1988);
Niemeyer (1975, 1978, 1997, 2000);
Papadaki (1960);
Salvaing (2002);
Sodré (1978);
Spade (1971a);
Underwood (1994, 1994a);

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"Niemeyer, Oscar." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Niemeyer, Oscar." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/niemeyer-oscar

"Niemeyer, Oscar." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/niemeyer-oscar

Niemeyer, Oscar

Niemeyer, Oscar (1907– ) Brazilian architect. An early advocate of modern architecture, he worked with Le Corbusier on the Ministry of Education and Health Building in Rio (1936–45). He subsequently developed an original approach: elegant, sub-tropical luxury expressed through curving, sculptural forms. In the late 1950s Niemeyer began designing the main public buildings at Brasília.

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"Niemeyer, Oscar." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Niemeyer, Oscar." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/niemeyer-oscar