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Hill, A. P.

Hill, A. P. (1825–1865), Confederate general.Born in Culpeper County, Virginia, Hill graduated from West Point in 1847, fifteenth in a class of thirty‐eight. While still a cadet he contracted gonorrhea, which caused recurrent prostatitis that afflicted him physically and psychosomatically for life. Hill served in the Mexican War and the Seminole Wars; his 1859 marriage to Kitty Morgan was a happy one that produced four daughters. After Virginia seceded in 1861, Hill resigned; he was appointed Confederate colonel of the 13th Virginia Infantry and fought at First Manassas. Promoted to brigadier general in February 1862, and major general in May 1862, Hill's Light Division became deservedly renowned during the Civil War for its fighting abilities; his energetic leadership distinguished him at the Seven Days' Battle, as well as the Battle of Fredericksburg, and the Battle of Antietam, where his timely arrival saved Robert E. Lee's right flank. In May 1863, he was promoted lieutenant general after “Stonewall” Jackson's death at Chancellorsville, assigned command of the Army of Northern Virginia's new III Corps, and led it from Gettysburg to the Wilderness. After 1863, repeated illnesses and quarrels with superiors marred Hill's temperamental leadership, especially during the 1864–65 Wilderness to Petersburg Campaign. Shortly after returning from sick leave, he was killed on 2 April 1865 at Petersburg by a Union infantryman while attempting to reconnoiter lines and rally his troops.
[See also Civil War: Military and Diplomatic Course.]

Bibliography

William W. Hassler , A. P. Hill: Lee's Forgotten General, 1979.
James I. Robertson, Jr. , General A. P. Hill: The Story of A Confederate Warrior, 1987.

Ervin L. Jordan, Jr.

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Hill, Ambrose Powell

Ambrose Powell Hill, 1825–65, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Culpeper, Va. He served briefly in the Mexican War and had a varied army career until he resigned in Mar., 1861, to support the Confederacy. After fighting at Williamsburg in the Peninsular campaign, Hill became (May, 1862) the youngest major general in the Army of Northern Virginia. His division was heavily engaged in the Seven Days battles. He fought under Stonewall Jackson from July, 1862, until Jackson's death. Hill's division, noted for its fast marching, saved the day for Stonewall at Cedar Mt., just before the second battle of Bull Run (Aug., 1862), and its opportune return from Harpers Ferry enabled it to repulse Gen. Ambrose Burnside's attack in the Antietam campaign. When Jackson was mortally wounded in the battle of Chancellorsville, he turned his command over to Hill, but Hill himself was soon wounded, and Jeb Stuart took over. In the reorganization of the Army of Northern Virginia after Jackson's death, Hill was given command of the new 3d Corps. He was thereupon promoted to lieutenant general (May, 1863). His corps brought on the fighting in the Gettysburg campaign, and Hill directed the battle on July 1, 1863. He was at the head of his corps through most of the Wilderness campaign (1864) and in the defense of Petersburg (1864–65). In the assault that finally broke the Confederate lines at Petersburg (Apr. 2, 1865), Hill, with characteristic impulsiveness, went out to rally his troops and was killed.

See D. S. Freeman, Lee's Lieutenants (3 vol., 1942–44); biography by W. W. Hassler (1957, repr. 1962).

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Hill, Ambrose Powell

Hill, Ambrose Powell (1825–65) Confederate commander in the American Civil War. He fought in the Second Battle of Bull Run (1862) and led his troops through the Gettysburg and Wilderness campaigns. He was killed at Petersburg while trying to restore the Confederate defence.

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