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Trochu, Louis Jules

Louis Jules Trochu (lwē zhül trôshü´), 1815–96, French general. He fought in Algeria, in the Crimean War, and in the Italian war of 1859. In L'Armée française en 1867 (1867), he criticized the French army and urged its reorganization. He was military governor of Paris when the Franco-Prussian War broke out (1870). He did not attempt to prevent the overthrow, at Paris, of the Second Empire after the French rout at Sedan (Sept., 1870), and he accepted the presidency of the government of national defense, hoping to conduct an honorable rather than a victorious defense. Trochu's inactivity in defense of Paris was severely criticized. He resigned after the capitulation of Paris in Jan., 1871. He wrote several volumes of apologia.

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"Trochu, Louis Jules." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Vierne, Louis (Victor Jules)

Vierne, Louis (Victor Jules) (b Poitiers, 1870; d Paris, 1937). Fr. organist and composer, born blind, but had limited sight after operation in 1877. Org., Nôtre Dame de Paris 1900–37. Taught org., Paris Cons. 1894–1911; prof. of org., Schola Cantorum, Paris, from 1912. Toured Europe and USA as org. recitalist. Wrote 6 org. syms. (1898–1930) and shorter pieces for org., also mass, str. qt., vn. sonata, vc. sonata, pf. quintet, and an orch. sym. (1907–8). Died playing org. at Notre Dame.

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"Vierne, Louis (Victor Jules)." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Vierne, Louis (Victor Jules)." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vierne-louis-victor-jules

"Vierne, Louis (Victor Jules)." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/vierne-louis-victor-jules