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Ormond, James Butler, 2nd duke of

Ormond, James Butler, 2nd duke of (1665–1745). Butler, born in Dublin, was heir of the earl of Ossory. Succeeding in 1680, he lived with his grandfather, the 1st duke, in Ireland until 1682. He fought for James II against Monmouth's rising in 1685. Succeeding his grandfather in July 1688, he supported the petition to James for a free parliament, then accepted William of Orange, for whom he fought in Ireland and Flanders. A pillar of the Tory Party and Anglican church, he commanded unsuccessfully the 1702 expedition against Cadiz, and was twice a controversial lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He replaced Marlborough in 1712, restraining his troops in the field to facilitate Tory negotiations with France. Dismissed in 1714, despite his role in proclaiming George I, he was threatened with impeachment by the Whigs. Panicking, he fled to the Jacobite court. Jacobite failures to invade England deprived him of chances to display his military incompetence again, and he died exiled and insignificant.

Bruce Philip Lenman

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Ormonde, James Butler, 2d duke of

James Butler Ormonde, 2d duke of, 1665–1745, Irish soldier. He was the son of Thomas Butler, earl of Ossory, and grandson of the Ist duke, whom he succeeded in 1688. A staunch Tory and popular military figure, he supported the cause of William of Orange (William III) and fought in the battle of the Boyne (1690). Early in the War of the Spanish Succession he commanded (1702) land forces in the fruitless expedition against Cádiz. Later, as lord lieutenant of Ireland (1703–6, 1710–13) and as the duke of Marlborough's successor (1711) in command of the forces, he appeared to be one of the most powerful men in the kingdom. He became involved, however, in the plot to prevent the accession of George I, and in 1715 he was impeached. Fleeing to France, he was attainted, took part in the risings of the Jacobites in 1715 and 1719, and spent the rest of his life in exile.

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