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Sennacherib

Sennacherib

Sennacherib (reigned 705-681 B.C.), a king of Assyria, was one of the four great kings of the late Assyrian Empire. He rebuilt Nineveh and destroyed Babylon.

Sennacherib is the biblical form of the name Sin-akheeriba. Though a younger son, he was chosen as heir by his father, Sargon II. As crown prince, he gained experience fighting on the northern frontier. On hearing of Sargon's death, he hastened back to Nineveh, but rebellion broke out. In Babylonia, a Chaldean, Merodach-Baladan, seized the throne, supported by the Elamites, but he was put to flight and the Chaldean tribes surrendered. The city-states and kingdoms of Syria and Palestine, encouraged by Egypt, refused tribute. In 701 B.C. Sennacherib marched to the coast and occupied Ascalon and Sidon; Judah was next invaded, Lachish captured by assault, and Jerusalem invested. Hezekiah, King of Judah, defied the Assyrians and was forced to pay a heavy indemnity. Sennacherib then attempted to invade Egypt, but disaster, perhaps plague, struck his army and he was forced to turn back.

A second rebellion in Babylonia was foiled, and Sennacherib made his son, Assur-nadin-shum, king of Babylon. Merodach-Baladan took refuge in the marshes of southern Elam. Seven years later, after repeated provocation, Sennacherib decided to seek him out; building a fleet at Nineveh, he sailed the ships downriver to Opis, then dragged them overland to the Euphrates, and thence to the Persian Gulf. After a sea battle, Elamite coastal towns were destroyed. Meanwhile, Assur-nadin-shum was murdered and replaced by an Elamite nominee. In 689 Sennacherib avenged his son. Marching to Babylon, he took the city by storm and mercilessly destroyed it, deporting the inhabitants and flooding the ruins. This sacrilege to a holy city shocked the ancient world but effectively discouraged further rebellion.

The war annals of Sennacherib depict him as a ruthless destroyer, "the flame that consumes those who will not submit." In his building inscriptions, however, he appears as "he who cares for the welfare of Assyria." His greatest achievement was the rebuilding of Nineveh, the ancient capital. He strengthened the walls, cut new streets, and replanned the water system. Water was brought from the hills 50 miles away and carried over a valley on a stone aqueduct—one of the engineering feats of antiquity. His palace, built on an artificial platform, covered 8 acres and was surrounded by parks and orchards stocked with exotic plants and animals. In January 681, while at prayer, Sennacherib was murdered by his own sons.

Further Reading

The events of Sennacherib's reign are recounted in volume 3 of the Cambridge Ancient History (1925), as well as in A. T. Olmstead, History of Assyria (1923), and H. Saggs, The Greatness That Was Babylon (1962). Daniel D. Luckenbill collected the inscriptions in Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, vol. 2 (1927). For Sennacherib's rebuilding of Nineveh see R. Campbell Thompson, A Century of Exploration at Nineveh (1929). On the reliefs from his palace, most of which are in the British Museum, consult C. J. Gadd, The Stones of Assyria (1936) and Assyrian Sculptures in the British Museum, from Shalmaneser III to Sennacherib (1938). See also T. Jacobsen and S. Lloyd, Sennacherib's Aqueduct at Jerwan (1935). □

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Sennacherib

Sennacherib (sĕnăk´ərĬb) or Senherib, d. 681 BC, king of Assyria (705–681 BC). The son of Sargon, Sennacherib spent most of his reign fighting to maintain the empire established by his father. It is difficult to determine the exact sequence of his conquests, but his first campaign seems to have been waged against Babylonia. Later he marched against an uprising of the western nations (Phoenicia, Judah, and Philistia), who were supported by Egypt. He defeated the Egyptians at Eltekeh (701 BC) and prepared to take Jerusalem. Isaiah had warned Hezekiah not to join the uprising against Assyria, but the king had refused the advice. Thus, Sennacherib destroyed many of Judah's cities and besieged Jerusalem, forcing the king to pay a heavy tribute.

Disturbances in Babylonia called the king to that area, and he waged a naval campaign against the Chaldaeans. He laid Elam waste and finally fought both the Chaldaeans and the Elamites at the battle of Halulina (Khaluli; c.691 BC). The exact outcome of the battle is uncertain. Two years later Sennacherib captured and destroyed Babylon. He constructed canals and aqueducts and built a magnificent palace at Nineveh. Two of his sons, jealous of their brother Esar-haddon, murdered Sennacherib. Esar-haddon succeeded to the throne.

See L. L. Homor, Sennacherib's Invasion of Palestine (1926, repr. 1966); B. S. Childs, Isaiah and the Assyrian Crisis (1967).

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Sennacherib

Sennacherib (d. 681 bc), king of Assyria 705–681, son of Sargon II. He devoted much of his reign to suppressing revolts in various parts of his empire, including Babylon (689). In 701 he put down a Jewish rebellion, laying siege to Jerusalem but sparing it from destruction (according to 2 Kings 19:35). He also rebuilt the city of Nineveh and made it his capital.

Sennacherib is the Assyrian described in Byron's poem ‘The Destruction of Sennacherib’ (1815); he was forced to break off his campaign when his army was devastated by divine intervention (2 Kings 35). On his return to Nineveh he was assassinated by his sons.

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Sennacherib

Sennacherib (d.681 bc) King of Assyria (704–681 bc). Son and successor of Sargon, he led expeditions to subdue Phoenicia and Palestine in 701 bc, and defeated the Elamite-Chaldean alliance in 691 bc. He destroyed Babylon in 689 bc and, with the peace of his empire thus assured, devoted himself to rebuilding his capital, Nineveh. See also Ashurbanipal

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Sennacherib

Sennacheribbib, crib, dib, fib, glib, jib, lib, nib, rib, sib, snib, squib •memsahib • Carib • sparerib •Sennacherib

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