Skip to main content
Select Source:

extroversion and introversion

extroversion and introversion, terms introduced into psychology by Carl Jung to identify opposite psychological types. Jung saw the activity of the extrovert directed toward the external world and that of the introvert inward upon himself or herself. This general activity or drive of the individual was called the libido by Jung, who removed from the term the sexual character ascribed to it by Sigmund Freud. The extrovert is characteristically the active person who is most content when surrounded by people; carried to the neurotic extreme such behavior appears to constitute an irrational flight into society, where the extrovert's feelings are acted out. The introvert, on the other hand, is normally a contemplative individual who enjoys solitude and the inner life of ideas and the imagination. The extreme introvert's fantasies give him or her libidinal satisfactions and tend to become more meaningful to him than objective reality. Severe introversion is characteristic of autism and some forms of schizophrenia. Jung did not suggest strict classification of individuals as extroverted or introverted, since each person has tendencies in both directions, although one direction generally predominates. Influenced by Jung, Hans Eysenck conducted research on large samples of individuals, creating more objective classifications for extroversion and introversion.

See C. G. Jung, Psychological Types (tr. 1923, repr. 1970); H. Eysenck, ed., A Model for Personality (1981).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"extroversion and introversion." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jan. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"extroversion and introversion." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/extroversion-and-introversion

"extroversion and introversion." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/extroversion-and-introversion

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

extroversion and introversion

extroversion and introversion A polarity in descriptions of personality, which has a long history, although the terms themselves only became popular in the nineteenth century. Extroversion (literally turning outwards) is typified by outgoing, sociable, impulsive behaviour; introversion (turning inwards) by reflective, withdrawn, responsible behaviour. The psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung linked extroversion with hysterical tendencies, introversion with depression and anxiety, the contrast underpinning his differentiation of personality types. Hans J. Eysenck, employing psychometric techniques and factor analysis, identified two major dimensions of personality and labelled the poles of one dimension extroversion and introversion. Individuals are located at points along the dimensions, the two axes enabling the full mapping of personality differences, and identification of personality types.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"extroversion and introversion." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jan. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"extroversion and introversion." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/extroversion-and-introversion

"extroversion and introversion." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Retrieved January 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/extroversion-and-introversion

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.