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Orchitis

Orchitis

Definition

Orchitis is an inflammation of the testis, accompanied by swelling, pain, fever, and a sensation of heaviness in the affected area.

Description

Viral mumps is the most common cause of orchitis. Bacterial infections associated with the disorder are tuberculosis, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. A mechanical injury to the groin area may also cause orchitis. Fifteen to twenty-five percent of males past the age of puberty with mumps develop orchitis. Epididymo-orchitis (inflammation of both testes and part of the spermatic duct) is the most common bacterial type of Orchitis. This form of the condition occurs most often in sexually active males fifteen years and older, and in men over 45 with enlarged prostates.

Causes and symptoms

The people most susceptible to orchitis are those with inadequate mumps inoculation and, in the case of sexually transmitted orchitis, those who practice unsafe sex or have a history of sexually transmitted disease. Inadequate protection of the groin area during contact sports or other potentially harmful physical activities may result in injury leading to orchitis. Symptoms of orchitis include swelling of one or both testicles, tenderness in the groin area, fever, headache, and nausea. Symptoms may also include bloody discharge from the penis, and pain during urination, intercourse, or ejaculation.

Diagnosis

In most cases, Orchitis can be diagnosed by an urologist, general practitioner, or emergency room physician. Diagnosis is usually based on the results of a physical examination and patient history. Other testing may include a urinalysis and urine culture, screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea, ultrasound imaging, or blood tests.

Treatment

Elevation and support of the scrotum, and the application of cold packs to the groin area give some relief from the pain of orchitis. Medication for pain such as codeine and meperidine may be given. Only the symptoms of viral mumps orchitis are treated. Antibiotics are used to alleviate orchitis that is bacterial in origin. Sexually transmitted orchitis (especially when resultant from chlamydia or gonorrhea) is often treated with the antibiotic Ceftriaxone in conjunction with azithromycin or doxycycline.

Alternative treatment

For relief from swelling, the drinking of dandelion tea is recommended in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Another traditional Chinese treatment for swelling is the application of a poultice of ground dandelion and aloe to the affected area. Homeopathic remedies to reduce swelling include apis mel, belladonna, and pulsatilla. Consult a homeopathic physician before taking or administering these remedies to ensure safe and correct dosage.

Prognosis

Orchitis is usually unilateral and lasts between one and two weeks. Atrophy of the scrotum occurs in 60% of orchitis cases. However, hormonal function is not affected and resulting sterility is rare from mumps.

Prevention

Keeping mumps inoculations current and diligently practicing safe sex are the best ways to prevent orchitis from occurring. For males involved in contact sports or other potentially harmful physical activities, the wearing of a protective cup over the genitals will help guard against mechanical injuries that could lead to orchitis.

Resources

PERIODICALS

Rodriguez, Rod. "Acute Scrotum Due to Epididymo-Orchitis in Male Children." Impotence & Male Health Weekly Plus February 1999.

OTHER

Mycyck, Mark, MD. "Orchitis from Emergency Medicine/Genitourinary." Emedicine, Instant Access to the Minds of Medicine. February 2001. http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic344.htm.

KEY TERMS

Atrophy A wasting away or withering.

Epididymo-orchitis Inflammation of both the testes and a part of the spermatic duct system.

Unilateral Affecting only one side.

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orchitis

orchitis (or-ky-tis) n. inflammation of the testis. This causes pain, redness, and swelling of the scrotum, and may be associated with inflammation of the epididymis (epididymo-orchitis). The condition is usually caused by infection spreading down the vas deferens but can develop in mumps (mumps o.).

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"orchitis." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Retrieved September 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/orchitis