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shoulder

shoul·der / ˈshōldər/ • n. 1. the upper joint of the human arm and the part of the body between this and the neck. ∎  (in quadrupeds) the joint of the upper forelimb and the adjacent part of the back. ∎  the part of a bird or insect at which the wing is attached. ∎  a large cut of meat from the upper foreleg and shoulder blade of an animal: a shoulder of lamb. ∎  a part of a garment covering the shoulder: a jacket with padded shoulders. ∎  (shoulders) the upper part of the back and arms: a tall youth with broad shoulders. ∎  (shoulders) fig. this part of the body regarded as bearing responsibility or hardship or providing strength: all accounts place the blame squarely on his shoulders. 2. a part of something resembling a shoulder in shape, position, or function: the shoulder of a pulley. ∎  a point at which a steep slope descends from a plateau or highland area: the shoulder of the hill sloped down. 3. a paved strip alongside a road for stopping on in an emergency. • v. 1. [tr.] put (something heavy) over one's shoulder or shoulders to carry: we shouldered our crippling backpacks and set off slowly up the hill. ∎ fig. take on (a burden or responsibility): she shouldered the blame for the incident. 2. [tr.] push (someone or something) out of one's way with one's shoulder: she shouldered him brusquely aside. ∎  [intr.] move in this way: he shouldered past a woman with a baby he shouldered his way through the seething mass of children. PHRASES: be looking over one's shoulder be anxious or insecure about a possible danger: takeovers are the thing that keeps suppliers looking over their shoulders. put one's shoulder to the wheel set to work vigorously. shoulder arms hold a rifle against the side of the body, barrel upward. a shoulder to cry on someone who listens sympathetically to one's problems. shoulder to shoulder side by side: everyone is bunched together shoulder to shoulder. ∎  acting together toward a common aim; with united effort: we fought shoulder to shoulder with the rest of the country. DERIVATIVES: shoul·dered / ˈshōldərd/ adj. [in comb.] broad-shouldered. ORIGIN: Old English sculdor; related to Dutch schouder and German Schulter.

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"shoulder." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"shoulder." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shoulder-0

"shoulder." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved July 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shoulder-0

shoulder

shoulder Like the hip, this is an example of the ‘ball and socket’ (or multiaxial) type of joint, with the head of the long bone of the upper arm (humerus) articulating with a hollow in the shoulder blade (scapula). The collar bone (clavicle) also plays a role in maintaining the stability of the shoulder joint, as it acts like a strut, holding the joint and the upper arm away from the chest and thus allowing the upper limb to swing freely. Because it is relatively thin and in a vulnerable position, the clavicle is broken more often than any other bone. The clavicle and scapula together form the shoulder (pectoral) girdle. Movement occurs in three planes: forwards (extension) and backwards (flexion); outwards (abduction) and inwards (adduction); twist in (internal rotation) and twist out (outward rotation). Combinations of these movements also give rise to ‘circumduction’, as at the hip. The shoulder has a greater degree of mobility than the hip, but is less stable, and therefore is more likely to be dislocated by injury. This is partly due to the fact that the shoulder ‘socket’ (glenoid fossa) is much shallower than the socket of the hip (acetabulum). In addition, the capsule is less strong than in the hip and the muscles acting at the shoulder, are less powerful. This vulnerability is the trade-off for the greater mobility of the shoulder joint, which is essential for even simple activities such as combing the hair. Inflammation of the tendons of the muscles surrounding the shoulder joint (rotator cuff muscles) can give rise to pain on lifting the arm (frozen shoulder).

William R. Ferrell


See also joints; skeleton.

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"shoulder." The Oxford Companion to the Body. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"shoulder." The Oxford Companion to the Body. . Retrieved July 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shoulder

shoulder

shoulder (shohl-der) n. the ball-and-socket joint (see enarthrosis) between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the upper end (head) of the humerus. The joint is surrounded by a capsule closely associated with many tendons.

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"shoulder." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"shoulder." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Retrieved July 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shoulder

shoulder

shoulder sb. OE. sċuldor, corr. to MLG. schuldere, (M)Du. schouder, OHG. sculter(r)a (G. schulter) :- WGmc. *skuldr-, of unkn. orig.
Hence vb. push with the shoulder(s) XIII; support with the shoulder(s) XVI.

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"shoulder." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"shoulder." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shoulder-1

"shoulder." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved July 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shoulder-1

shoulder

shoulder In human anatomy, mobile joint at the top of the arm. It consists of the ball-and-socket joint between the upper arm bone (humerus) and the shoulder blade (scapula).

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"shoulder." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"shoulder." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shoulder

"shoulder." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved July 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shoulder

shoulder

shoulder.
1. Bracket or console, also called shoulder-or shouldering-piece.

2. Crossette.

3. Projection narrowing the top of an aperture, as in a shouldered arch (see arch).

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"shoulder." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"shoulder." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shoulder

"shoulder." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved July 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shoulder

shoulder

shoulderdodder, fodder, plodder, prodder •Isolde, solder •absconder, anaconda, Fonda, Golconda, Honda, nonda, ponder, responder, squander, Wanda, wander, yonder •hot-rodder •awarder, boarder, border, defrauder, hoarder, Korda, marauder, order, recorder, sordor, warder •alder, Balder, Calder •launder, maunder •sailboarder • skateboarder •keyboarder • snowboarder •camcorder • video recorder •chowder, Gouda, howdah, Lauda, powder •bounder, compounder, expounder, flounder, founder, grounder, impounder, pounder, propounder, rounder, sounder •gunpowder •Clodagh, coda, coder, exploder, loader, Oder, odour (US odor), pagoda, Rhoda, Sargodha, Schroder, soda, vocoder •beholder, boulder, folder, holder, moulder (US molder), polder, scolder, shoulder, smoulder (US smolder), upholder, withholder •cardholder • shareholder •stakeholder •freeholder, keyholder •leaseholder • copyholder •policyholder • stockholder •smallholder, stallholder •householder • freeloader •avoider, embroider •joinder • Schadenfreude

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"shoulder." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"shoulder." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved July 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shoulder