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Saliva

Saliva

Rock group

For the Record

Selected discography

Sources

Veterans of the Memphis, Tennessee, rock scene, the members of Saliva came together in September of 1996. Within months the group had won an important local talent competition and took off for the semifinals of the Grammy Talent Showcase, sponsored by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Although the group had only been together for a short time, it put on an impressive set that took it to the final round of competition. Despite losing out on the grand prize, the exposure brought the band to the attention of several major record labels. After releasing its self-titled debut in 1997 on its own label, the band signed with Island Records. Salivas major-label debut, Every Six Seconds, appeared in 2001. Led by the modern rock hit track Your Disease, the album earned a gold record for sales in the year after its release.

The members of Saliva had played in various Memphis-area bands for several years before singer Josey Scott and guitarist Chris Dabaldo decided to form a new venture in the summer of 1996. Scott hailed from a musical family that included gospel and country singers and musicians at least three generations back. My dad was a country gospel artist when I was a kid, Scott explained in an interview with MTV.com, and he taught me how to play the guitar and taught me about how to

For the Record

Members include Paul Crosby, drums; Chris Dabaldo, guitar; Dave Novotny, bass; Jo-sey Scott, vocals; Wayne Swinny, guitar.

Group formed in Memphis, TN, 1996; performed in Grammy Talent Showcase, 1997; released debut album, Saliva, 1997; signed with Island Records, released Every Six Seconds, 2001.

Addresses: Record company Island Records, 825 Eighth Ave., New York, NY 10019, website: http://www.islandrecords.com. Website Saliva Official Website: http://www.saliva.net.

sing and about harmony and everything like that. And I hated it when I was a kid, but I ended up loving it and appreciating what he had taught me because he had taught me how to become familiar with my own voice, and he taught me about layering and the harmonies. My dad was a big musical influence on my life earlier on.

Dabaldos influences included more straight-ahead rock n roll bands such as MÖtley Crue and Black Sabbath. The duo added Paul Crosby on drums and Dave Novotny on bass; another crucial addition was guitarist Wayne Swinny, who also provided rap vocals to the groups sound. As Scott related on the Island Records website, I couldnt believe what came out of this guy [Swinny]. The beauty is that for all of his ability to rap and his hard edge and his lookhe looks really aggressive and scary, almostwhen I saw him sit down with an acoustic [guitar] and play this beautiful, melodic stuff with great hooks and melodies and incredible vocals, that really did it for me. I knew this was a band that could do something really special.

Scott and Dabaldo had already agreed upon the name for the band. They wanted something that was simple, yet distinctive, that would convey the emotional meaning that permeated the songs they were writing. As Scott recalled in an interview with Christopher J. Kelter for Roughedge.com, We started to come up with different ideas geared for the next project that we were going to be working on. As far as the name Saliva was concerned, I was specifically trying to think of a name that was already a household word, that was a human truth, and had something to do with sexuality. He added, Im really pleased with the way Saliva rolls off the tongueno pun intended. That it was sexual and provocative was even better as opposed to something political.

Just a few weeks after Saliva came together in September of 1996, it faced its first major challenge when it entered the Grammy Talent Showcase sponsored by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Playing against four other Memphis bands at the New Daisy on famous Beale Street, the group did not think it had a chance at winning the first round of the competition. In addition to its unusual name, the band was essentially making its debut as a new act on the Memphis scene. We figured hometown politics alone would keep us out of the running, Scott told MTV.com, and the other bands were really good bands and we were just starting out. We didnt take it really seriouslywe just thought of it as a good opportunity to play and get our chops up live. The band focused on putting together a tight set of original songs it had written in just a few months and added some prerecorded radio tracks to play between songs.

Much to its members surprise, Saliva won the Memphis competition and went to Austin, Texas, for the regionals. Once again the group considered itself the underdog of the lineup, which included bands from Atlanta, Nashville, and Dallas. I thought we didnt have a chance, Scott admitted to Kelter. I thought we were done, finished; I could see it comin. As in Memphis, however, the bands theatrical stage show won over the crowd in Austin. The situation was like a storybook, Scott recalled. The Nashville band played first, the Atlanta band played second, and then the Austin band played to a packed house. It was a hometown showa classic hometown show. Then it was our turn. They had to call in police officers because the pit got out of hand. It was pretty cool.

Saliva won the regional competition, but at the final round in New York City it was defeated for the grand prize. The exposure of the series was invaluable, however, with several record labels expressing interest in signing the band. Despite the pressure to sign with a major label, the band decided to put out its own independent release first. Saliva, a 13-track collection, appeared in 1997. A mix of rock, rap, gothic, and industrial sounds, the album confirmed Salivas place among contemporary alternative metal bands such as Staind, Helmet, and Korn. It became a regional favorite and sold about 10,000 copies.

After signing with Island Records, the band went into the studio to record its major-label debut. Every Six Seconds was released in March of 2001. Scott wrote the lyrics to all 12 tracks on the album; as he told Billboard, I had an opportunity in all the different songs to say everything I wanted to say about life, about truth, about love and relationshipsjust all of the human conditions from death and mourning to the complex sort of burdens that life had to offer, and how to rise above that and dust yourself off. Scotts approach received mixed reviews from critics. A writer for Mega-KungFu.com called the album a rockin good time and the group one of the few bands that make it that has a clue about how to write a song! Alyce Wilson of the Wild Violet website took another view of the album. You can almost hear the agent behind the scenes, crying for a marketable hit And thats the problem. This album screams, Make me famous. Even the album art features a preteen Saliva fan, who can be seen sporting such merchandise as a Saliva necklace, mini-backpack, and a Saliva poster in various photos.

In addition to the radio-friendly Click Click Boom, the single Your Disease became a breakout hit from Every Six Seconds and hit Billboards Modern Rock Tracks top 20. The track details how things can go bad real fast when there is manipulation and sex involved, Scott told Billboard. Peoples emotions can get pretty tangled. Id say a lot of our songs are relationshiporiented, and not just because everybody can identify with it, either. Its about being honest. Based on the strength of Your Disease and the accompanying video, Every Six Seconds earned a gold record for its sales a year after its release.

The band has continued to build its fan base through its energetic live shows. Its our secret weapon, man, Scott told Voxonline, We want to give fans their due. I want people to come away saying, Damn! That was worth my $7.00! I want to give them a live show that sounds a lot like the record as well. I hate going to shows and the band plays some way-out version of their hits, when what you want is a really good, rockin version of whats on the album! With Saliva, thats what theyll get.

Selected discography

Saliva, Rocking Chair, 1997.

(Contributor) Dracula 2000 (soundtrack), Sony, 2000.

Every Six Seconds, Island, 2001.

Sources

Periodicals

Billboard, March 10, 2001, p. 34; May 5, 2001, p. 95.

Online

Hot Spit: Interview with Josey Scott of Saliva, Roughedge.com, http://www.roughedge.com/features/salivaview0101.htm (April 14, 2002).

MegaKungFu.com, http://megakungfu.com/cdreviews/saliva.shtml (April 14, 2002).

Saliva, Island Records, http://www.islandrecords.com/saliva/html/bio.html (April 14, 2002).

Saliva: The Cure for Your Disease, MTV.com, http://www.mtv.com/bands/archive/s/saliva01/index2.jhtml (April 14, 2002).

Voxonline, http://www.voxonline.com/alternative/saliva/saliva_interview.htm (April 14, 2002).

Wild Violet, http://www.wildviolet.net/saliva.html (April 14, 2002).

Timothy Borden

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Saliva

Saliva

ETHNONYMS: Chimere, Chimero, Saliba, Saliua


The 2,000 Saliva people today live primarily in the department of Meta and in the territories of Vichada, Guianía and Vaupés in Colombia; a small population also lives in southwestern Venezuela, near the Colombian border. Many of those living in Colombia are on government reservations. About 500 Saliva live in several small settlements near Orocué on the upper Rio Meta.

Before the nineteenth century the Saliva lived along the middle reaches of the Orinoco. Little is known about their history before the expansion of Jesuit missions along the Orinoco in the late seventeenth century. The Saliva were settled in a number of missions at this time, but they suffered greatly from epidemics and Carib slave raids. The Jesuits found the Saliva to be a docile group that willingly accepted settlement in the missions, perhaps seeking protection from the warlike Caribs with whom the Saliva maintained an ambiguous relationshipthey traded with them and even intermarried, although they were often the victims of Carib raids. At the end of the seventeenth century, some of the Saliva left the missions and migrated to the upper Meta region. In the eighteenth century the Jesuits attracted most of these to the missions they founded in the new Saliva territory. A new wave of epidemics hit the Orinoco area in the 1750s, which, more than the force of government arms, put an end to Carib raiding but decimated all native populations. At the time of the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767, few Saliva remained, and these lived in two missions, one on the Orinoco and one on the upper Meta. The Saliva were well known for their allegiance to the church and for their skill, taught them by the Jesuits, at playing instrumental music. With the decline of the missions in the nineteenth century, the Saliva returned to seminomadic life, settling among other groups of the region.

The Saliva habitat is the Llanos, a vast savanna region of eastern Colombia and western Venezuela. There are pronounced wet and dry seasons; in the rainy season the plains are flooded. Early observers reported an abundance of game as well as fish and amphibians.

The Saliva were primarily an agricultural people, among the most diligent of the region. They preferred to settle along minor watercourses where water was available, and the gallery forests provided the best agricultural land. Originally they lived in large communal houses, but later, as Carib raids increased, dwellings were dispersed to facilitate flight.

The Saliva grew maize, sweet and bitter manioc, and a number of different fruits, especially pineapples and papayas. They probably grew such introduced crops as sugarcane and rice since early colonial times. Chili peppers were their preferred condiment. Among nonfood crops were tobacco, cotton, carguate (a kind of agave) for fiber, gourds, and various dye plants. Fields were cleared in the gallery forest, generally by male work groups. For better drainage, manioc was planted in raised mounds; other crops were simply planted among the charred tree trunks and stumps. Except for clearing and burning, women did most of the agricultural work. The Saliva did little weeding; when a field became choked with weeds, they abandoned it and opened a new one.

Hunting and fishing were important secondary activities. Game included deer, peccaries, tapir, armadillos, anteaters, tortoises, and iguanas. Iguanas were a favorite food, and so abundant it was reported that hundreds could be captured in a single hour. The Saliva fished the rivers and, in the rainy season, flooded areas of the savanna. Many different fishing techniques were used; one of the most ingenious was for catching fruit-eating fish. Two fishermen would cooperate, one dropping a piece of fruit into the water. When a fish rose to the bait, the other fisherman was ready with bow and arrow.

Collecting turtle eggs was an important seasonal activity, as hundreds of thousands of turtles laid their eggs on the beaches of the Orinoco and its tributaries. The Saliva extracted oil from the eggs that they used in cooking, as a base for body paint, and as an article of trade.

Women spun cotton and used a primitive loom. Basketry was the exclusive work of men, whereas only women made pottery. Women also processed manioc tubers and made manioc bread. The Saliva were expert makers of dugout canoes, and some were large enough to carry ten or twelve people.

There is very little information about traditional Saliva social Organization. The earliest reports come from eighteenth-century Jesuit missionaries when Saliva society had already been altered by mission life. Communities were probably independent, and local headmen gained their position through a combination of personal qualities and patrilineal descent. Polygyny was common and divorce frequent. There is ample evidence that the Saliva often intermarried with the Achagua and with Carib groups. The Saliva practiced the couvade, which imposed a period of inactivity and fasting on both parents of a newborn child. Young men were frequently submitted to flagellation rituals, perhaps as part of an initiation ceremony. Funerals were elaborate, and secondary burial was practiced.

The Saliva made a favorable impression on early European observers as a clean, peaceful, and hardworking people. The men were found to be somewhat effeminate and vain of their appearance, and the women spent a great deal of time grooming and applying body paint to their husbands and other male family members. On ceremonial occasions both sexes wore necklaces and pendants of animal teeth and shell money obtained through trade. The Saliva participated actively in the trade networks of the Llanos, even after contact. They manufactured manioc graters and made paints and dyes for body decoration, specifically for trade.

Little is known about Saliva cosmology. Puru was the creator, living in heaven with his son. When a great serpent devastated the Orinoco region, Puru sent his son to kill it. From the serpent's decomposed body emerged worms, which turned into the feared and hated Carib peoples. The sun, moon, and stars were also supernatural beings. Shamans were the religious specialists who fasted and used hallucinogenic drugs to make contact with the spirits.

The Saliva who now live near Orocué are survivors of the missions of that region. They are subsistence farmers, selling their surplus crops to buy necessities. They keep chickens and pigs and occasionally a few head of cattle. Neighborhoods are formed of two to a dozen homesteads. Men often work as wage laborers on surrounding farms and ranches. At present, their lands are under pressure from settlers.

Modern Saliva are nominal Christians, but their religious beliefs and practices are an amalgam of Catholicism and the native system. They practice trial marriage: a young couple first lives with the wife's family and only if the trial is concluded successfully (usually with the birth of a child) do they have a church marriage and form an independent household. The shaman is still the principal religious specialist, and Saliva shamans are renowned for their knowledge of medicinal herbs.

Over 300 years of contact the Saliva have maintained their ethnic and cultural identity. Most are bilingual in Saliva and Spanish, using their own language in daily life and speaking Spanish only to outsiders.


Bibliography

Elis de Walter, Leah B., and Linda Criswell, eds. (1984). Estudiemos las culturas indígenas de Colombia. Loma Linda: Editorial Townsend.


Morey, Nancy (1975). "Ethnohistory of the Colombian and Venezuelan Llanos." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Utah.


Morey, Nancy, and Robert V. Morey (1980). "Los sáliva." In Etnología contemporanéa. Vol. 1, edited by Audrey Butt Colson, 245-306. Los aborígenes de Venezuela, edited by Walter Coppens and Bernarda Escalante. Monograph no. 29. Caracas: Fundación La Salle de Ciencas Naturales, Instituto Caribe de Antropología y Sociología.


Morey, Robert V. (1972). "Notes on the Saliva of Eastern Colombia." Current Anthropology 13:144-147.

NANCY M. FLOWERS

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saliva

saliva is a complex fluid secreted into the mouth by the various salivary glands. There are three pairs of major salivary glands: the parotid glands, situated behind the jaw in front of the ear, and the submandibular and sublingual glands that lie under the jaw and tongue. Also, there are many minor salivary glands, present throughout the mouth within the lips, cheeks, tongue, and palate. The parotid glands produce saliva with a watery (serous) consistency, whilst the sublingual and the minor salivary glands produce a more viscous (mucous) fluid. The submandibular glands produce a mixture of serous and mucous saliva.

Saliva contains 99% water, plus dissolved inorganic ions and numerous organic substances. Most of the organic material in saliva is protein, some of which is glycoprotein or mucin, which contains both carbohydrate and protein components. The total daily flow of saliva from all the salivary glands is around 600 ml. Salivary flow rates are lowest during sleep and highest whilst eating, when flow rates may reach 5 ml/min. Resting salivary flow averages around 0.3 ml/min. Salivary flow rates are reduced in dehydration and after significant blood loss. The resulting dry mouth is responsible for the accompanying sensation of thirst.

Although saliva is very useful for moistening postage stamps and cotton thread, its main roles are in feeding, and in protecting the oral tissues. When salivary flow is too low, dry mouth (xerostomia) may result. Here, normal oral functions such as chewing, swallowing, and speaking can be uncomfortable and difficult to perform. Greatly reduced salivary flow may also result in increased incidence of dental disease (dental caries and periodontal disease), or disease of the oral mucosa — the lining of the mouth (stomatitis). Dry mouth may be due to salivary gland disorders, but it is also a prominent and undesirable side-effect of many commonly-used drugs.

Saliva coats the surfaces of the teeth and oral mucosa with a thin film of mucins. This slippery film lubricates the oral tissues, making it easier to chew, swallow, and speak. Saliva assists feeding by moistening the ingested food morsels and helps to bind the chewed food particles into a compact mass (a bolus) suitable for swallowing.

enzymes in saliva begin the digestive process: an a-amylase breaks down starch molecules and a lipase digests fat. Saliva also contributes to taste by dissolving sapid substances in food and so making them accessible to the taste buds; a zinc-binding protein, gustin, is thought to contribute to the taste process.

The saliva also has defensive functions. ‘Proline-rich proteins’ coat the teeth with a thin layer — pellicle — that serves as a protective diffusion barrier on the tooth surface. Saliva is supersaturated with calcium and phosphate ions, which are effectively in balance with the minerals in the teeth. To a limited extent, calcium and phosphate ions in saliva can diffuse through the pellicle into the tooth and can reverse the very early stages of tooth decay, where acids have caused slight demineralization of the tooth surface, but before actual cavity formation occurs. This remineralization process is enhanced by fluoride ions, which may be present in toothpastes or other oral health products. While the high levels of calcium and phosphate in saliva may help remineralization of early carious lesions, they also increase the likelihood of spontaneous precipitation of calcium phosphates on the teeth as calculus (tartar). However, saliva also contains statherins and proline-rich proteins, which inhibit mineralization and so help to prevent precipitation of calcium and phosphate on intact tooth surfaces. Saliva contains all the ions usually present in body fluids, and of these, bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) ions play a major role in determining the pH and buffering capacity of saliva. Salivary bicarbonate can help protect teeth against attack from acids produced by bacteria in dental plaque. The bicarbonate concentration of saliva increases with flow rate, so buffering is improved during eating.

Salivary proteins prevent the oral mucosa from drying and provide a defensive barrier against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Saliva contains growth factors which promote healing of the oral mucosa. Saliva contains various antimicrobial substances, including lysozyme, lactoferrin, sialoperoxidase, and histatins as well as more specific antibodies or immunoglobins. The main antibody in saliva is secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA), which binds to bacterial antigens and is of interest in view of its possible role in immunity to dental caries.

Salivary flow increases during eating. The physical action of chewing stimulates nerve endings in the periodontal tissues around the teeth. Sapid substances stimulate taste buds. Both of these stimuli are potent initiators of salivary flow. Olfactory (smell) stimuli have little effect in provoking salivary flow in humans, although irritants (such as spices) can increase salivary flow. Signals from nerve endings in the mouth evoke salivation by exciting the salivatory centres in the brainstem. Salivary secretion is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system often have antagonistic actions, but in the control of salivation they act in a complementary manner. Activation of the parasympathetic nerves elicits large volumes of a watery salivary secretion containing ions and enzymes; stimulation of the sympathetic nerves produces small amounts of saliva that is rich in proteins. The composition of saliva thus varies with the balance of activity in the autonomic nerves controlling salivary secretion.

Salivary responses to chewing and taste stimuli are innate. However, salivary flow may be elicited by events not necessarily associated with feeding. These are termed conditioned reflexes and are learned after a period of training or conditioning during which a ‘natural’ stimulus (e.g. food) is presented at the same time as the ‘artificial’ or conditioning stimulus (e.g. light or sound). Eventually, the ‘artificial’ stimulus on its own will elicit salivary flow. The classical example of conditioned salivary secretion was originally observed in dogs by the Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, who was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1904 for his work on digestive secretions. Conditioned salivary secretion is also present in humans.

Robin Orchardson

Bibliography

Edgar, W. M. and O'Mullane, D. M. (ed.) (1996). Saliva and oral health, (2nd edn). British Dental Association, London.


See also alimentary system; eating; mouth.

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Saliva

Saliva

A forensic investigation can involve the analysis of body fluids , including saliva, for evidence of toxins and both prescription and illicit drugs . Obtaining a saliva sample is far less obtrusive and cumbersome than obtaining a blood or urine sample, especially at the scene of an accident or crime.

Saliva is a clear liquid that is made and is present in the mouth, where it has a number of functions. It wets food and makes the food easier to swallow. As well, specialized proteins that are present in saliva trigger chemical reactions that begin to break apart chemical bonds in the food (the proteins are generically termed enzymes). This begins the process of digestion, whereby the food is converted to a form that can be utilized by the body to provide energy. For example, the salivary enzyme alpha-amylase initiates the breakdown of starch into its constituent maltose sub-units.

In addition to wetting the food, saliva also wets the tongue, which aids the various receptors on the surface of the tongue in differentiating the different tastes of foods. Washing of saliva over the surface of teeth, and the presence of antibacterial enzymes, helps keep teeth clean and helps lessen the chance of infections.

Saliva production lessens during sleep. The resulting build-up of bacteria on the teeth and in the mouth produces the characteristic objectionable morning breath. Even though production lessens during sleep, the production of saliva is a round-the-clock affair. Every day, 24 pints (approximately 12 liters) of saliva are produced. This large volume is secreted by three pairs of salivary glands located in the mouth.

Within each gland a cluster of cells called the acinus secrete the salivary fluid. The fluid contains water, electrolytes (minerals such as sodium, potassium, and calcium that are present in body fluids and cells, and whose concentrations are important in maintaining proper body function), mucus (a slippery, jelly-like substance that helps coat and protect cells) and the aforementioned enzymes.

From the acinus, the fluid collects in ducts within each salivary gland. Here, the composition of the fluid is changed. Most of the sodium is reabsorbed and potassium and bicarbonate ions are added. The latter is particularly important in ruminant animals like cows, since, when swallowed, it helps counteract the corrosive action of the large quantity of acid that is produced in the forestomachs.

From the collecting ducts, the saliva passes to larger ducts, which ultimately merge to form a single large duct, from which the saliva empties into the mouth.

Most animals, including humans, have three pairs of salivary glands that are located on either side of the mouth in three different locations. They differ in the nature of the saliva that is produced.

The parotid glands are located near the upper teeth, in a broad area underneath the earlobe. The secreted saliva is watery and reminiscent of the serum portion of blood; indeed, it is described as being serous. Submaxillary (or submandibular) glands are located on the floor of the mouth, underneath the back portion of the tongue. The saliva produced by these glands is a mixture of serous and mucus portions. Finally, the sublingual glands are located on the floor of the mouth in the region of the chin. Sublingual saliva is predominantly mucous in composition.

In addition to the three pairs of glands, hundreds of small glands called minor salivary glands are located in the lips, inside of the cheeks, and throughout the remainder of the mouth and throat.

Saliva can be of forensic significance because traces of drugs that are circulating in the body can be present in saliva. The composition of the saliva accurately mirrors the proteins that are present in both the blood and the urine. Thus, testing of saliva, which is easier and less obtrusive than obtaining a blood or urine sample, can be used to reveal the presence of prescription and illicit drugs.

Similar tests are being refined that will enable the detection of viral and bacterial infections as well as diseases such as cancer. These tests are based on the presence of signature proteins that are unique to the maladies, such as antibodies, from the microorganism or cancerous cells.

For example, an antibody-based saliva test for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; the accepted cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is available for clinical use. No home-use tests are officially approved as of yet, although a number of nonsanctioned and independently evaluated tests are available through Internet-based companies.

Promising preliminary research results published in February 2005 have shown that aberrant genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid; DNA ) and the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) that helps process the genetic information into a protein from cancerous cells can also be detected in saliva. In the future, forensic analysis of saliva may help determine if the subject has (or did have) cancer.

see also Barbiturates; Illicit drugs.

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saliva

saliva A water fluid that is secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands when food is present in the mouth, or is anticipated. In vertebrates, saliva contains mucus, which acts as a lubricant to aid swallowing and in some it contains an enzyme which commences the digestion of starch. In insects, saliva is secreted to the mouth-parts and is used to lubricate food, and in some species contains digestive enzymes. In blood-sucking species, saliva usually contains anti-clotting agents and in some it contains a local anaesthetic.

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saliva

saliva A watery fluid secreted by the salivary glands in the mouth. Production of saliva is stimulated by the presence of food in the mouth and also by the smell or thought of food. Saliva contains mucin, which lubricates food and eases its passage into the oesophagus, and in some animals salivary amylase (or ptyalin), which begins the digestion of starch. The saliva of insects is rich in digestive enzymes, and that of bloodsucking animals contains an anticoagulant.

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saliva

saliva (să-ly-vă) n. the alkaline liquid secreted by the salivary glands and the mucous membrane of the mouth. Its principal constituents are water and mucus, which keep the mouth moist and lubricate food, and enzymes (e.g. amylase) that begin the digestion of starch. See also dry mouth.
salivary (să-ly-ver-i) adj.

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saliva

saliva Secretion of the salivary glands in the mouth: 1–1.5 L secreted daily. A dilute solution of the protein mucin (which lubricates food) and the enzyme amylase (which hydrolyses starch), with small quantities of urea, potassium thiocyanate, sodium chloride, and bicarbonate.

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"saliva." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Retrieved August 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saliva

saliva

sa·li·va / səˈlīvə/ • n. watery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands, providing lubrication for chewing and swallowing, and aiding digestion. DERIVATIVES: sal·i·var·y / ˈsaləˌverē/ adj.

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"saliva." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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saliva

saliva Fluid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands. In vertebrates, saliva consists of c.99% water with dissolved traces of sodium, potassium, calcium, and the enzyme amylase. Saliva softens and lubricates food to aid swallowing, and amylase starts the digestion of starches.

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"saliva." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"saliva." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/saliva

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saliva

saliva XVII. — L. salīva.
So salivary XVIII. — L. salivārius. salivate (-ATE3) XVII. f. pp. stem of L. salīvāre. salivation XVI. — F. or late L.

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"saliva." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"saliva." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved August 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saliva-1

saliva

salivaaquiver, downriver, forgiver, giver, quiver, river, shiver, sliver, upriver •silver • mitzvah • lawgiver • Oliver •miniver, Nineveh •quicksilver •conniver, contriver, diver, driver, fiver, Godiva, Ivor, jiver, Liver, reviver, saliva, skiver, striver, survivor, viva •skydiver • slave-driver • piledriver •screwdriver •bovver, hover •Moskva •revolver, solver •windhover •Canova, Casanova, clover, Dover, drover, Grsbover, Jehovah, left-over, Markova, Moldova, moreover, Navrátilová, nova, ova, over, Pavlova, rover, trover, up-and-over •layover • flyover • handover •changeover •makeover, takeover •walkover • spillover • pullover •Hanover • turnover • hangover •wingover • sleepover • slipover •popover, stopover •Passover • crossover • once-over •pushover • leftover

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"saliva." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"saliva." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved August 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saliva