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Bursa

BURSA

fourth largest city of turkey, in northwest anatolia.

Bursa was the first major conquest of the early Ottomans in 1324. A modest Byzantine provincial market town, it quickly developed as the first capital of the growing Ottoman Empire, featuring many of the finest examples of early Ottoman architecture. Positioned on the northern foothills of Uludağ (Bithynian Mount Olympus) close to the Sea of Marmara, with easy access to the Mediterranean and on the natural extension of Anatolian routes, it became a major international commercial center, where European, mainly Genoese, merchants bought silk and other Eastern goods. It was also widely known for its abundant hot springs and magnificent baths.

Even after the conquest of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in 1453, when it became the definitive capital of the empire, Bursa remained an imperial city and a thriving international market, with significant manufacture of cotton and silk textiles, in addition to its long-established role as terminus for long-distance Asian caravan trade. With a population of about 40,000 in the sixteenth century, it was the largest city in Anatolia. Bursa's growth was hampered in the seventeenth century as a result of the Ottoman policy of promoting İzmir as the major port for Asian and European trade, but the city retained its position as a prominent, if less prosperous, cultural, manufacturing, and commercial center. During the Tanzimat period of free trade, with competition from industrialized Europe, Bursa's silk and cotton textile manufacture suffered significantly, but both the Ottoman policy of industrialization and private investment in steam-powered plants allowed recovery of local production before the end of the century. Bursa became the seat of an enlarged province incorporating several northwest Anatolian districts. Abdülhamit II's efforts to glorify the early Ottoman heritage also contributed to the city's growing fortunes.


Bursa was occupied by the Greek army after World War I, and the city suffered during the ensuing Turkish War of Independence, especially with the destructive retreat of the Greek army in 1922 and the loss of its non-Muslim population. As a result of the state-led industrialization during the 1920s and 1930s, Bursa recovered its textile manufacturing prominence, but its real growth came in the 1960s, with the establishment by private enterprises first of large-scale canning and food processing and then of the automotive industry. In 2000, Bursa was the third largest contributor to Turkey's gross domestic product, with its population of 2,106,687, of whom 1,288,068 reside in the city center. It also ranked fifth among Turkish cities with respect to socioeconomic development. Even with this rapid industrial transformation, however, Bursa still maintains its role as a spa and a heritage center; Uludağ has recently become a favorite winter resort and its highland pastures have regained their early-Ottoman importance for summering. Uludağ University, opened in 1975, aims to foster the city's traditional position of cultural and intellectual prominence.

see also abdÜlhamit ii; anatolia; istanbul; İzmir; ottoman empire; tanzimat.


Bibliography

Özendeş, Engin. The First Ottoman Capital, Bursa: A Photographic History. Istanbul: Yapi-Endüstri Merkezi Yayinlari, 1999.

Turkish Ministry of Culture. Information found at <http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=1934>.

I. Metin Kunt

Updated by BurÇak Keskin-Kozat

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"Bursa." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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bursa (in anatomy)

bursa (bûr´sə), closed fibrous sac lined with a smooth membrane, producing a viscous lubricant known as synovial fluid. Bursas are found in regions where muscles or tendons rub against other muscles, tendons, or bones. The bursas function in two ways, lubricating points of friction, and dissipating force by distributing it through a fluid medium. Normally, the bursas produce just enough synovial fluid to reduce friction. However, constant irritation may lead to oversecretion and consequent enlargement of the bursa, a condition known as bursitis. In the hand and foot, the bursa assumes a tubular form. Called the synovial sheath, the structure encloses the tendons along their entire length.

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Bursa (city, Turkey)

Bursa (bŏŏrsä´), city (1990 pop. 838,323), capital of Bursa prov., NW Turkey. The market center of a rich agricultural region, on the ancient Silk Road S of Constantinople, Bursa was long noted for its silks, but is now a producer of automobiles, other textiles and apparel, and metals. Founded at the end of the 3d cent. BC by the king of Bithynia, Prusias I, it was called Prusia ad Olympium or Prusa. It was captured by the Seljuk Turks in 1075, taken by the Crusaders in 1096, and in 1204 passed to the Byzantines. Captured in 1326 by the Ottoman Turks, it became the Ottoman capital. It was sacked by Timur in 1402; afterward Adrianople (now Edirne) became (1413) the new Ottoman capital. Among the city's sites, the Green Mosque (1421) and mosque of Beyazid I (1399) are especially noted. The town is sometimes called Brusa.

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bursa

bursa (ber-să) n. (pl. bursae) a small sac of fibrous tissue that is lined with synovial membrane and filled with fluid. Bursae help to reduce friction; they are normally formed round joints and in places where ligaments and tendons pass over bones.
bursal adj.

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bursa

bursa (pl. bursae) A sac of fibrous connective tissue lined with synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid. Bursae are found between bones and other tissues, such as skin, ligaments, tendons, and muscles, where they reduce friction when one part moves over another.

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bursa

bur·sa / ˈbərsə/ • n. (pl. -sae / -sē/ or -sas ) Anat. a fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity, esp. one countering friction at a joint. DERIVATIVES: bur·sal adj.

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