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Antagonist

ANTAGONIST

An antagonist is a drug that binds to a Receptor (i.e., it has affinity for the receptor binding site) but does not activate the receptor to produce a biological response (i.e., it possesses no intrinsic activity). Antagonists are also called receptor "blockers" because they block the effect of Agonists. The pharmacological effects of an antagonist therefore result in preventing agonists (e.g., drugs, hormones, neurotransmitters) from binding to and activating the receptor. A competitive antagonist competes with an agonist for binding to the receptor. As the concentration of antagonist is increased, the binding of the agonist is progressively inhibited, resulting in a decrease in the physiological response. High antagonist concentrations can completely inhibit the response. This inhibition can be reversed, however, by increasing the concentration of the agonist, since the agonist and antagonist compete for binding to the receptor. A competitive antagonist, therefore, shifts the dose-response relationship for the agonist to the right, so that an increased concentration of the agonist in the presence of a competitive antagonist is required to produce the same biological response observed in the absence of the antagonist.

A second type of receptor antagonist is an irreversible antagonist. In this case, the binding of the antagonist to the receptor (its affinity) may be so strong that the receptor is unavailable for binding by the agonist. Other irreversible antagonists actually form chemical bonds (e.g., covalent bonds) with the receptor. In either case, if the concentration of the irreversible antagonist is high enough, the number of receptors remaining that are available for agonist binding may be so low that a maximum biological response cannot be achieved even in the presence of high concentrations of the agonist.

(See also: Naloxone ; Naltrexone )

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ross, E. M. (1990). Pharmacodynamics: Mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug con centration and effect. In A. G. Gilman, T. W. Rall, A. S. Nies, & P. Taylor (Eds.), Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 8th ed. New York: Pergamon.

Nick E. Goeders

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"Antagonist." Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Behavior. . Encyclopedia.com. 8 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Antagonist." Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Behavior. . Retrieved December 08, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/antagonist

antagonist

an·tag·o·nist / anˈtagənist/ • n. a person who actively opposes or is hostile to someone or something; an adversary: he turned to confront his antagonist. ∎  Biochem. a substance that interferes with or inhibits the physiological action of another.Compare with agonist. ∎  Anat. a muscle whose action counteracts that of another specified muscle. Compare with agonist.

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"antagonist." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 8 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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antagonist

antagonist A drug that inhibits the effect of an agonist in such a way that the combined biological effect of the two substances becomes smaller than the sum of their individual effects. Competitive antagonists act by binding to agonist receptors, while noncompetitive antagonists do not bind to the same receptor sites as the agonist. A functional antagonist binds to other receptors that elicit an effect opposite to that of the agonist.

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antagonist

antagonist opponent XVI. — F. antagoniste or late L. antagōnista — Gr. antagōnistḗs, f. antagōnízesthai struggle against, vie with; see ANTI-, AGONY.
So antagonism XIX; prob. after F. antagonize oppose XVII; make hostile XIX. — Gr.

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"antagonist." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 8 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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antagonist

antagonist (an-tag-ŏn-ist) n.
1. a muscle whose action (contraction) opposes that of another muscle (see agonist).

2. a drug or other substance with opposite action to that of another drug or natural body chemical.
antagonism n.

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antagonist

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