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viol

viol, family of bowed stringed instruments, the most important ensemble instruments from the 15th to the 17th cent. The viol's early history is indefinite, but it is recognizable in depictions from as early as the 11th cent. During the second half of the 17th cent. it lost its dominant position to the violin family and became practically extinct until the general revival of interest in early music and instruments in the 20th cent. The viol differs from the violin in the manner of playing, in its shape, and in having frets and typically six strings, tuned in fourths with one third, rather than in fifths. Most viols are properly played upright, resting on or between the knees, with the bow held with the palm upward. The viol usually has sloping shoulders, a flat back, and deeper ribs than the violin. It is a chamber instrument with a soft, sweet tone, incapable of the dynamic extremes and brilliance of the violin; this helps to account for its decline. The viol was built in four principal sizes—treble, alto, tenor, and bass—which were used in ensemble, or "consort." The double-bass viol, or violone, survived all the others, becoming, with some modification, the present double bass. The bass viol was the principal solo instrument of the family, possessing a large literature from the 16th to the 18th cent. It later became known as viola da gamba [Ital.,=leg viol]—originally the name of the whole family, to distinguish them from those of the viola da bracchio (arm viol) family, the forerunners of the violin. The viola d'amore, a member of the viol family, originated in the 17th cent. and was especially popular in the 18th cent. It has from five to seven strings, tuned in thirds and fourths, and an equal number of sympathetic strings running through the bridge and under the fingerboard. Unlike most viols, it is held, like the violin, under the chin. It was and is principally a solo instrument, possessing a modest literature from all periods, including the 20th cent.

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"viol." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"viol." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 13, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/viol

viol

viol. Type of bowed str. instr., made in various sizes. Developed in Renaissance period, then superseded by vn. family, now revived for perf. of early mus. Origins obscure, but probably developed from efforts to apply bow to plucked instr. during 2nd half of 15th cent. in Spain. Term ‘viol’ was used generically, like vihuela in Sp. Consort of viols mentioned in Eng. records of King's Musick for 1540. Shape of viol varied much during first century of existence. Documentation of 1556 says that Fr. viols had 5 str. tuned in 4ths, whereas It. viols had 6. All viols were played held downwards, larger sizes between the legs, smaller resting on knees. Eng. composers from Byrd to Purcell wrote superb series of works for viols, a consort (or chest) normally comprising 2 trebles, 2 tenors, and 2 basses. Viol had flat back, frets, and C-shaped sound-holes. Bow held in underhand grip with fingers controlling tension of horse-hair. Prin. types of viol. are: division viol: smaller version of bass viol suitable for agile playing of divisions (variations); lyra-viol: instr. specially built for virtuoso viol players who practised double- and triple-stopping, pizzicato, etc.; mus. written in tablature. Tobias Hume's First Part of Ayres, 1605, is lyra-viol mus. See also baryton, viola d'amore, viola da braccio, viola da gamba.

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"viol." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"viol." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved December 13, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/viol

viol

viol Fretted stringed instrument, played with a bow. It is held on or between the knees and, in its most usual shape, has sloping shoulders and a flat back. The six strings are tuned in fourths, in the same manner as the lute. A possible derivative, the modern double bass, is perhaps the only type of viol to survive; it shows its ancestry by being tuned in fourths (unlike members of the violin family, which are tuned in fifths).

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"viol." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"viol." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved December 13, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/viol

viol

vi·ol / ˈvīəl/ • n. a musical instrument of the Renaissance and baroque periods, typically six-stringed, held vertically and played with a bow.

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"viol." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"viol." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 13, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/viol-0

"viol." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved December 13, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/viol-0

viol

violdenial, dial, espial, Lyall, mistrial, myall, Niall, phial, trial, vial, viol •sundial •knawel, withdrawal •avowal, Baden-Powell, bowel, disembowel, dowel, Howell, Powell, rowel, towel, trowel, vowel •semivowel •bestowal, koel, Lowell, Noel •loyal, royal, viceroyal •accrual, construal, crewel, cruel, dual, duel, fuel, gruel, jewel, newel, renewal, reviewal •eschewal •artefactual (US artifactual), contractual, factual, tactual •perpetual •aspectual, effectual, intellectual •conceptual, perceptual •contextual, textual •habitual, ritual •conflictual • instinctual • spiritual •mutual • punctual • virtual • casual •audio-visual, televisual, visual •usual • gradual • individual •menstrual • actual •asexual, bisexual, heterosexual, homosexual, psychosexual, sexual, transsexual, unisexual •accentual, conventual, eventual •Samuel •annual, biannual, Emanuel, Emmanuel, manual •Lemuel •consensual, sensual •continual

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"viol." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 13 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"viol." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved December 13, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/viol