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Balalaika

BALALAIKA

The balalaika is one of a family of Eurasian musical instruments with long necks, few strings, and a playing technique based on rapid strumming with the index finger. First mentioned in written records in 1688 in Moscow, the balalaika existed in various forms with triangular and oval bodies, differing numbers of strings, and movable tied-on string frets, and was mainly used for playing dance tunes.

The traditional balalaika's popularity may have peaked in the last decades of the eighteenth century, when foreign travelers reported seeing one in every home, although as numerous references in the works of Leo Tolstoy, Nikolai Gogol, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and others attest, it remained in widespread if diminishing use during the nineteenth century. Most closely associated with the Russians, the instrument, likely a borrowing from the Tatars, was used to a lesser extent by Ukrainians, Gypsies, Belarussians, and other ethnic groups.

The modern balalaika originated from the work of Vasily Andreyev (18611918), who in the 1880s created a standardized, three-string chromatic triangular-bodied instrument with fixed metal frets and other innovations. Andreyev went on to develop the concept of the balalaika orchestra consisting of instruments of various sizes, for which he later reconstructed the long-forgotten domra, a favorite instrument of the skomorokhi, or minstrels.

The modern balalaika is a hybrid phenomenon incorporating elements of folk, popular, and art or classical music and is widely taught from music school through conservatory. In addition to its use in traditional-instrument orchestras and ensembles, the balalaika's repertoire includes pieces with piano and other chamber works, a number of concertos with symphony orchestra, and occasional appearances in opera. A vanishing contemporary village folk tradition, while possibly preserving some pre-Andreyev elements, utilizes mass-produced balalaikas played with a pick. Throughout much of its history the instrument has been used as a symbol of Russian traditional culture.

See also: folk music; music

bibliography

Kiszko, Martin. (1995). "The Balalaika: A Reappraisal." Galpin Society Journal 48:130155.

Serge Rogosin

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"Balalaika." Encyclopedia of Russian History. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Balalaika." Encyclopedia of Russian History. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/balalaika

balalaika

balalaika (băləlī´kə), Russian stringed musical instrument, with a triangular body and a long fretted neck fretted instrument. Usually there are three strings, which are generally plucked with a pick. The balalaika is made in various sizes, and several may be combined to make a band or orchestra. A similar instrument, the bandura, is found in Ukraine and Russia, and other types are to be found in the countries of the Middle East, where the balalaika almost certainly originated. The instrument did not appear in Russia until c.1700. Like the guitar, it has been much used to accompany folk songs and country dances.

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"balalaika." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"balalaika." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/balalaika

balalaika

bal·a·lai·ka / ˌbaləˈlīkə/ • n. a guitarlike musical instrument with a triangular body and two, three, or four strings, popular in Russia and other Slavic countries.

balalaika

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"balalaika." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"balalaika." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/balalaika-0

balalaika

balalaika. Russ. guitar, triangular in shape with (normally) 3 str., and a fretted fingerboard. Exists in various sizes. Assoc. with it, in balalaika bands, are the domra, a somewhat similar instr., and the gusli.

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"balalaika." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"balalaika." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/balalaika

balalaika

balalaika Triangular musical instrument popular in Russia. Strings (usually three) are fingered on a fretted neck and may be picked, or plucked with the fingers. It sounds similar to the mandolin.

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"balalaika." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"balalaika." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/balalaika

"balalaika." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/balalaika

balalaika

balalaika guitar-like instrument. XVIII. — Russ.

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"balalaika." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"balalaika." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/balalaika-1

"balalaika." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/balalaika-1

balalaika

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"balalaika." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/balalaika