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rebellion

rebellion, revolution Relatively rare but historically important events in which an entire social and political order is overturned, usually by violent means, and reconstructed on new principles with new leaders. The word revolution has come to be applied loosely to any dramatic social change—as in ‘industrial revolution’, ‘computer revolution’, ‘style revolution’, and so forth. But its central meaning is still political. It is difficult to make a sharp distinction between a political revolution and a rebellion, although some have argued that the term ‘revolution’ should be reserved for those instances in which the new governing élite attempts to make fundamental changes in the social structure of the post-revolutionary society, whereas rebellions are more limited political upheavals involving only the replacement of one ruling group by another. On this criterion, rebellions clearly shade into revolutions, depending upon one's judgement as to the scope and intensity of the social changes that follow the seizure of power.

The prototypes of all modern revolutions were the American and French Revolutions of 1776 and 1789. Both had a clear political agenda, and both resulted in a complete transformation of power relationships. In this century, the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Chinese Revolution of 1948 had similar dramatic results. Not all revolutions in recent history have been socialistic or egalitarian, or even modernizing; many have been anti-democratic or right-wing. Fundamentalist Islam has swept through the Middle East, most notably in the revolutionary downfall of the Shah of Iran in 1979. The 1990s have witnessed a ‘reverse revolution’ in many former communist states.

Probably the most influential theory of revolution in sociology has been the historical materialism of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. However, it should be recognized that Marxism has come to embody several (by no means compatible) theories of revolution, including for example the theory of the dictatorship of the proletariat advanced by Lenin and of peasant revolution proffered within Maoism. Many subsequent sociological studies of revolutionary change are explicit critiques of the Marxist view of history in general and of revolutions in particular.

Most studies of rebellions and revolutions have necessarily been historical, and have focused on causes and processes. Theories that stress social disequilibrium, rising expectations, and relative deprivation are plausible, but have not proved highly explanatory or predictive. In more recent work, Theda Skocpol has formulated a theory of revolution which stresses the inability of institutions to cope with normal crises (States and Social Revolutions, 1979), and Charles (Tilly) and Louis Tilly have proposed a historical model in which rebellions arise opportunistically out of a shifting balance of power and resources (The Rebellious Century 1830–1930, 1975). Skocpol's theory was particularly controversial. She proposes a macro-level, structural analysis, which makes a sharp distinction between political revolutions (leadership changes) and social revolutions (which transform the whole of society). Arguing against monocausal explanations of social revolutions (for example rising expectations, class conflicts) she proposes a complex, fluid model which emphasizes the differences between states, the role of external factors such as international economic competition, and the availability of grievance channels for different social classes. (This focus on the complexity of revolutionary social change is continued in her later work, including her edited and co-edited volumes on Vision and Method in Historical Sociology, 1984, and Bringing the State Back In, 1985.)

Revolutionary change in a society is never complete, and the outcomes are highly variable. Elements of the old order live on, as they did in France after 1789 and Russia after 1917, confounding the idealistic intentions which launched the revolution.

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Rebellion

545. Rebellion

  1. Absalom conspires to overthrow father, David. [O.T.: II Samuel 15:1018:33]
  2. Bastille Day celebration of day Paris mob stormed prison; first outbreak of French Revolution (1789). [Fr. Hist.: EB, I: 866]
  3. Beer Hall Putsch early, aborted Nazi coup (1923). [Ger. Hist.: Hitler, 198241]
  4. Boston Tea Party irate colonists, dressed as Indians, pillage three British ships (1773). [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 58, 495]
  5. Boxer Rebellion xenophobic Chinese Taoist faction rebelled against foreign intruders (1900). [Chinese Hist.: Parrinder, 50]
  6. Caine Mutiny, The sailors seize command from the pathological and incompetent Capt. Queeg. [Am. Lit.: Wouk The Caine Mutiny in Benét, 157]
  7. Christian, Fletcher (fl. late 18th century) leader of mutinous sailors against Captain Bligh (1789). [Am. Lit.: Mutiny on the Bounty]
  8. Easter Rising unsuccessful Irish revolt against British (1916). [Irish Hist.: EB, III: 760761]
  9. Gunpowder Plot Guy Fawkess aborted plan to blow up British House of Commons (1605). [Br. Hist.: NCE, 1165]
  10. Harpers Ferry scene of Browns aborted slave uprising. [Am. Hist.: John Jameson, 220]
  11. Hungarian Revolt iron-curtain country futilely resisted Soviet domination (1956). [Eur. Hist.: Van Doren, 553]
  12. Jacquerie French peasant revolt, brutally carried out and suppressed (1358). [Fr. Hist.: Bishop, 372373]
  13. Jeroboam with Gods sanction, establishes hegemony over ten tribes of Israel. [O.T.: I Kings 11:3135]
  14. Korah rose up against Moses; slain by Jehovah. [O.T.: Numbers 16:13]
  15. Kralich, Ivan fugitive from Turkish law; firebrand for Bulgarian independence of Ottoman rule. [Bulgarian Lit.: Under the Yoke ]
  16. Mutiny on the Bounty activities of mutineers, Captain Bligh, island wanderings (1789). [Am. Lit.: Mutiny on the Bounty ]
  17. Peasants Revolt, the English villeins attempt to improve their lot (1381). [Br. Hist.: Bishop, 220221, 373374]
  18. Pilot, the Mr. Gray successfully carries out many assignments for the rebels and thwarts the British [Am. Lit.: Cooper The Pilot ]
  19. Sepoy Rebellion Indian soldiers uprising against British rule in India (18571858). [Br. Hist.: NCE, 1328]
  20. Sheba led an aborted revolt against King David. [O.T.: II Samuel 20: 12]
  21. Spina, Pietro returns from exile disguised as a priest and engages in antifascist activities. [Ital. Lit.: Bread and Wine ]

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rebellion

re·bel·lion / riˈbelyən/ • n. an act of violent or open resistance to an established government or ruler: the authorities put down a rebellion by landless colonials | Simon de Montfort rose in rebellion. ∎  the action or process of resisting authority, control, or convention: an act of teenage rebellion.

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"rebellion." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"rebellion." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/rebellion-0

rebellion

rebellionItalian, stallion •cañon, canyon, companion •hellion, rebellion •Kenyan •Melanesian, Micronesian, Polynesian •billion, jillion, million, modillion, multimillion, pillion, septillion, sextillion, squillion, trillion, zillion •minion, opinion, pinion •carillon • slumgullion •bunion, Bunyan, grunion, onion, Runyon •roentgen • damson • Kansan • Tarzan •blazon, brazen, emblazon, liaison, raisin •Spätlesen •reason, season, treason •arisen, grison, imprison, mizzen, prison, risen, uprisen •Pilsen • crimson • malison •benison, denizen •orison • citizen •bedizen, greisen, horizon, kaizen •Stockhausen •chosen, frozen •Lederhosen • poison • Susan •cousin, cozen, dozen •Amazon

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"rebellion." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/rebellion