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Oriya

Oriya

ETHNONYMS: Odia, Odiya; adjective: Odissi, Orissi (Orissan in English)


Orientation

Identification. In Orissa State in India, the Oriya constitute the regional ethnic group, speaking the Oriya language and professing the Hindu religion, to be distinguished from an Oriya-speaking agricultural caste called Odia found in central coastal Orissa. Some Oriya live in the adjoining states. The Oriya language and ethnic group are presumably derived from the great Udra or Odra people known since Buddhist and pre-Buddhist Mahabharata epic times.

Location. The state of Orissa is located between 17°49 and 22°34 N and 81°29 and 87°29 E, covering 155,707 square kilometers along the northeastern seaboard of India. The large majority of the Oriya live in the coastal districts and along the Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers. Orissa falls in the tropical zone with monsoon rains from June-July to September-October. Western Orissa is afflicted with recurring drought.

Demography. The last national census in 1981 records the population of Orissa as 26,370,271 persons, with a Population density of 169 persons per square kilometer as compared to 216 for India as a whole. Of the total population of Orissa, 84.11 percent speak Oriya. Although rural, Orissa's urban centers with 5,000 or more persons rose from containing 8.4 percent of the population in 1971 (81 towns) to 11.79 percent in 1981 (108 towns). Most of the ninety-three Scheduled Castes, which constitute 15.1 percent of Orissa's population, speak Oriya. Of the 23.1 percent of Orissa's Population categorized as Scheduled Tribes, many speak Oriya as their mother tongue. With 34.23 percent literacy in 1981 compared to 26.18 percent in 1971, Orissa trails behind many Indian states, especially in female literacy.

Linguistic Affiliation. Oriya belongs to the Indo-Aryan Branch of the Indo-European Family of languages. Its closest affinities are with Bengali (Bangla), Assamese (Asamiya), Maithili, Bhojpuri, and Magahi (Magadhi). The Oriya spoken in Cuttack and Puri districts is taken as standard Oriya. The Oriya language has a distinctive script, traceable to sixth-century inscriptions. It has thirteen vowels and thirty-six consonants (linguistically, spoken Oriya has six vowels, two semivowels, and twenty-nine consonants).


History and Cultural Relations

Orissa has been inhabited since prehistoric times, and Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic cultural remains abound. By the fourth century b.c. there was a centralized state in Orissa, though the hill areas often nurtured independent princedoms mostly evolving out of tribal polities. In 261 b.c., Orissa, then known as Kalinga, was conquered by the Emperor Ashoka after a bloody Kalinga war, leading to the conversion of the king into a nonviolent Buddhist who spread Buddhism in Asia. In the early second Century b.c. Emperor Kharavela, a Jain by religion and a great conqueror, had the famous queen's cave-palace, Ranigumpha, cut into the mountain near Bhubaneswar, with exquisite sculptures depicting dancers and musicians. Both eastern and western Orissa had famous Buddhist monasteries, universities, and creative savants. Starting in the first Century a.d., according to Pliny and others, there was extensive maritime trade and cultural relations between Orissa (Kalinga, Kling) and Southeast Asian countries from Myanmar (Burma) to Indonesia. Orissa was ruled under several Hindu dynasties until 1568, when it was annexed by the Muslim kingdom of Bengal. In 1590, Orissa came under the Mogul empire, until the Marathas seized it in 1742. In 1803 it came under British rule. As early as 1817 the agriculturist militia (Paik) of Orissa revolted against the British in one of the first regional anticolonial movements. In 1936 Orissa was declared a province of British India, and the princely states with an Oriya population were merged into Orissa in 1948-1949. The cultures and languages of south India, western India, and northern Indiaand also those of the tribal peopleshave enriched the cultural mosaic and the vocabulary of the Oriya.


Settlements

In 1981, 88.21 percent of the people of Orissa lived in Villages. In 1971, 51,417 villages of Orissa ranged in population from less than 500 persons (71.9 percent), 500-900 persons (18.8 percent), 1,000-1,999 persons (7.5 percent), to more than 2,000 persons (1.78 percent). The Oriya villages fall into two major types: linear and clustered. The linear settlement pattern is found mostly in Puri and Ganjam districts, with houses almost in a continuous chain on both sides of the intervening village path and with kitchen gardens at the back of the houses. Cultivated fields surround the settlement. In the cluster pattern each house has a compound with fruit trees and a kitchen garden. The Scheduled Castes live in linear or cluster hamlets slightly away from the main settlement, with their own water tanks or, today, their own wells. In the flooded coastal areas one finds some dispersed houses, each surrounded by fields for cultivation. In traditional Orissa, two styles of houses (ghara ) were common. The agriculturists and higher castes had houses of a rectangular ground plan with rooms along all the sides (khanja-ghara ), leaving an open space (agana ) in the center. Mud walls with a gabled roof of thatch made of paddy stalks or jungle grass (more durable) were common. The more affluent had double-ceiling houses (atu ghara ) with the inner ceiling of mud plaster supported by wooden or bamboo planks. This construction made it fire-proof and insulated against the summer heat and winter chill. The entrance room was usually a cowshed, as cattle were the wealth of the people. Men met villagers and guests on the wide front veranda. Poorer people had houses with mud walls and straw-thatched gable roofs, without enclosed courtyards or double ceilings. The smoke from the kitchen escaped under the gabled roof. The Oriya had, in common with Eastern India, a wooden husking lever (dhenki ) in the courtyard for dehusking paddy rice or making rice flour. Nowadays houses with large windows and doors, roofs of concrete (tiled or with corrugated iron or asbestos sheets), walls of brick and mortar, and cement floors are becoming common even in Remote villages. In the traditional house, the northeastern corner of the kitchen formed the sacred site of the ancestral spirits (ishana ) for family worship.


Economy

Subsistence and Commercial Activities. Subsistence cultivation of paddy is ubiquitous as rice is the staple food. Double-cropping, sometimes even triple-cropping in irrigated fields, and single-cropping in drought-affected or rain-fed areas are all common. Large-scale farming with heavy agricultural machinery is still uncommon. Plowing with two bullocks or two buffalo is usual, with a wooden plow. Only recently have iron plows been coming into use. Cash crops like sugarcane, jute, betel leaves on raised mounds, coconuts and areca nuts (betel nuts) are grown in coastal Orissa, and pulses and oil seeds in drought-prone areas. Recently coffee, cocoa, cardamom, pineapples, and bananas have also been raised on a commercial scale. Fish are caught in traps and nets from Village tanks, streams, rivers, coastal swamps, and also in the flooded paddy fields. Fishing boats with outboard motors and trawlers are nowadays used at sea. The domestic animals include cows, goats, cats, chickens, ducks, and water buffalo among the lowest castes, as well as pigs and dogs among the urban middle class.


Industrial Arts. Most large villages had castes of artisans who served the agricultural economy in former times. Carpenters, wheelwrights, and blacksmiths were absolutely necessary. Some villages had potters with pottery wheels and weavers with cottage looms (cotton was formerly grown and yarn spun). Today, industrial products are displacing the Village products except for the wooden plow and cart wheels. Some cottage industries, especially the handloomed textiles (including the weaving of ikat, cotton textiles that are tied and dyed), are producing for export. Brass and bell-metal utensils and statues and silver and gold filigree ornaments have a wide clientele.

Trade. In villages, peddling and weekly markets were the usual commercial channels. Since World War II ration shops have sold scarce essential commodities.

Division of Labor. Men plow, sow, and carry goods with a pole balanced on the shoulder, whereas women carry things on their head, weed, and transplant the fields. Harvesting is done by both sexes. While men fish and hunt, women perform household chores and tend babies. Traditionally, among higher-caste and higher-class families, women did not work outside home. Nowadays men and some women are engaged in salaried service, but only lower-caste and lower-class women undertake wage labor.

Land Tenure. Before Independence land under agriculture had increased substantially. However, because of the high rate of population growth and subdivision of landholdings, the number of marginal farmers and the landless increased sharply thereafter. Following Independence some land above the statutory ceiling or from the common property resources was distributed among the landless, weaker sections of society. Large-scale industrial and irrigation-cum-power projects displaced people and added to the ranks of the landless. All of this has resulted in various categories of tenancy and contractual lease of land for subsistence cultivation.


Kinship

Kin Groups and Descent. Traditionally and currently, three patterns of family organization have obtained: (1) the multihousehold compounds where the separate families of the sons of the common father are housed as an extended family; (2) joint families with all the brothers living together, with a common kitchen, with or without the parents living (more common in villages than towns); (3) several families belonging to a patrilineage among whom kin obligations continue, residing in neighboring villages. Descent is patrilineal.

Kinship Terminology. The social emphasis on seniority in age and differentiation by sex and generation are observed. Kinship terminology follows the Hawaiian system. Fictive or ritual kin terms are used widely and are expressed in respect and affection and also in meeting appropriate kin obligations.


Marriage and Family

Marriage. Although polygyny was practiced earlier, most marriages today are monogamous. Most marriages even now are also arranged by parents, though some are based on the mutual choice of the marriage partners. Only in western Orissa and southern Orissa is cousin marriage practiced. Marriage partners must not belong to the same gotra (mythical patrilineal descent group). Bride-price among the lower and middle castes has been replaced by a more costly dowry for the bridegroom among all classes and castes. After Marriage, residence is patrilocal, with the bride assuming the gotra of the husband. Nowadays residence tends to be Neolocal near the place of work. The Hindu marriage was ideally for this life and beyond, but since 1956 divorce has been permitted under legal procedures.

Domestic Unit. Living in a family is considered normal and proper. Most families today in both villages and towns are nuclear, though some are joint families. Members working and living outside usually visit the residual family and shrines occasionally. Often land is cultivated jointly by sharing the farm expenses. Recently there has been a tendency to reduce the size of the rural household through family planning.

Inheritance. Traditionally only sons inherited land and other immovable properties. The eldest son was given an additional share (jyesthansha ). Since 1956 the widow and daughters have been legal cosharers in all property.

Socialization. Parents, grandparents, and siblings care for infants and children and provide informaland, recently, formaleducation before school. Education of girls is still not common beyond primary school. Physical punishment to discipline a child is common, though infants are usually spared and cuddled. Respect for seniors in all situations and the value of education are emphasized, especially among the higher classes.


Sociopolitical Organization

Orissa is a state in the Republic of India, which has an elected president. The governor is the head of Orissa State, and the chief minister is the elected head of the government of Orissa.

Social Organization. Traditional Oriya society is Hierarchically organized primarily on the basis of caste (and subcaste) and occupations and secondarily on the basis of social class. The highest castes, Brahman, are priests and teachers of the Great Tradition. Below them in descending order of status are: the Kshatriya, warriors and rulers; the Vaisya, or traders; and the Sudra, or skilled and unskilled workers and service holders. The occupations involving manual and menial work are low in status, and polluting occupations like skinning dead animals or making shoes are associated with the lowest castes, the Untouchables. Ascriptive status in the caste system is sometimes checked now by acquired status in the class system. In rural Orissa patron-client relationships are common and social mobility is difficult.

Political Organization. Orissa is divided into thirteen Districts (zilla ), and each district is divided into subdivisions (tahsils ) for administrative purposes, into police stations (thana ) for law-and-order purposes, and into community development blocs (blok ) for development purposes. There are village-cluster committees (panchayat ) with elected Members and a head (sarpanch ) for the lowest level of self-administration and development. The community development bloc has a panchayat samiti or council of panchayats headed by the chairman, with all the sarpanch as members. Each caste or populous subcaste in a group of adjacent Villages also had a jati panchayat for enforcing values and institutional discipline. The traditional gram panchayat, consisting of the leaders of several important castes in a village, was for maintaining harmony and the ritual cycle.

Social Control and Conflict. Warfare between adjacent princedoms and villages came to a stop under British rule. The police stations (thana) maintain law and order in the rural areas.


Religion and Expressive Culture

Hinduism of various sects is a central and unifying force in Oriya society. The overwhelmingly important Vaishnava sect have their supreme deity, Jagannatha, who lords it over the religious firmament of Orissa. Lord Jagannatha's main temple is at Puri on the sea, where the famous annual festival with huge wooden chariots dragged for the regional divine triadJagannatha, Balabhadra, and Subhadra (goddess sister) draws about half a million devotees. The famous Lingaraja temple of Lord Shiva at Bhubaneswar, the famous Viraja goddess temple at Jajpur, both in coastal Orissa, and Mahimagadi, the cult temple of the century-old Mahima sect of worshipers of Shunya Parama Brahma (the absolute soul void) at Joranda in central Orissa, are highly sacred for the Oriya people.

Religious Beliefs. The people of Orissa profess Hinduism overwhelmingly (96.4 percent), with Christianity (1.73 percent), Islam (1.49 percent), Sikhism (0.04 percent) and Buddhism (0.04 percent) trailing far behind. Obviously many Tribal groups have declared Hinduism as their religion. Apart from supreme beings, gods, and goddesses of classical Hindu religion, the Oriya propitiate a number of disease spirits, Village deities, and revered ancestral spirits.

Religious Practitioners. In the villages each Brahman priest has a number of client families of Kshatriya, Vaisya, and some Sudra castes. There are also magicians (gunia ) practicing witchcraft and sorcery. Kalisi or shamans are consulted to discover the causes of crises and the remedies.

Ceremonies. A large number of rituals and festivals mostly following the lunar calendar are observed. The most important rituals are: the New Year festival (Bishuba Sankranti) in mid-April; the fertility of earth festival (Raja Parab); festival of plowing cattle (Gahma Punein); the ritual of eating the new rice (Nabanna) ; the festival worshiping the goddess of victory, known otherwise as Dassara (Durga Puja); the festival of the unmarried girls (Kumar Purnima); the solar-calendar harvest festival (Makar Sankranti); the fast for Lord Shiva (Shiva Ratri); the festival of colors and the agricultural New Year (Dola Purnima or Dola Jatra); and, finally, the festival worshiping Lord Krishna at the end of February. In November-December (lunar month of Margashira) every Thursday the Gurubara Osha ritual for the rice goddess Lakshmi is held in every Oriya home.

Arts. The ancient name of Orissa, Utkala, literally means "the highest excellence in the arts." The Oriya are famous for folk paintings, painting on canvas (patta-chitra ), statuary and sculptures, the Orissan style of temple architecture, and tourist and pilgrim mementos made of horn, papier-mâché, and appliqué work. Classical Odissi dance, the virile Chhow dance, colorful folk dances with indigenous musical instruments (percussion, string, and wind) and also Western instruments, dance dramas, shadow plays (Ravana-Chhaya) with puppets, folk opera (jatra ), mimetic dances, and musical recitation of God's names are all very popular. Orissi music, largely following classical (raga ) tunes, and folk music, are rich and varied.

Medicine. Illness is attributed to "hot" or "cold" food, evil spirits, disease spirits, and witches; and mental diseases to sorcery or spirit possession. Leprosy and gangrenous wounds are thought to be punishment for the commission of "great" sins, and, for general physical and mental conditions, planets and stars in the zodiac are held to be responsible. Cures are sought through herbal folk medicines, propitiation of supernatural beings and spirits, exorcism, counteraction by a gunia (sorcery and witchcraft specialist), and the services of homeopathic, allopathic, or Ayurvedic specialists.

Death and Afterlife. Death is considered a transitional state in a cycle of rebirths till the soul (atma ) merges in the absolute soul (paramatma ). The god of justice, Yama, assigns the soul either to Heaven (swarga ) or to Hell (narka ). The Funeral rites and consequent pollution attached to the family and lineage of the deceased last for ten days among higher castes. The dead normally are cremated.


Bibliography

Das, Binod Sankar (1984). Life and Culture in Orissa. Calcutta: Minerva Associates.


Das, K. B., and L. K. Mahapatra (1979). Folklore of Orissa. New Delhi: National Book Trust India. 2nd ed. 1990.


Das, M. N., ed. (1977). Sidelights on History and Culture of Orissa. Cuttack: Vidyapuri.


Eschmann, A., H. Kulke, and C. C. Tripathi (1978). The Cult of Jagannath and the Regional Tradition of Orissa. New Delhi: Manohar Publications.


Fisher, E., S. Mahapatra, and D. Pathy (1980). Orissa Kunst und Kultur in Nordost Indien. Zurich: Museum Rietberg.


Ganguly, Mano Mohan (1912). Brissa and Her Remains Ancient and Mediaeval (District Puri), Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co.; London: W. Thacker & Co.


Mahapatra, L. K. (1987). "Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, and Bonai Ex-Princely States of Orissa." In Tribal Polities and Pre~ Colonial State Systems in Eastern and Northeastern India, edited by Surajit Sinha. Calcutta: K. P. Bagchi.


Marglin, Frédérique Apffel (1985). Wives of the God-King: The Rituals of the Devadasis of Puri. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.


Orissa, Government of. Revenue Department (1990). "History" and "People." In Orissa State Gazetteer. Vol. 1. Cuttack: Orissa Government Press.

L. K. MAHAPATRA

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Oriya

Oriya

PRONUNCIATION: aw-REE-yuh

ALTERNATE NAMES: Ksatriya caste

LOCATION: India (Orissa state)

POPULATION: 27.2 million

LANGUAGE: Oriya

RELIGION: Hinduism

1 INTRODUCTION

The Oriya are the dominant ethnic group in India's eastern state of Orissa. They share historical and cultural traditions that date to the sixth century bc. The Oriya are identified with the Odra (or Udra), a people mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts. The lands to the north of the Mahanadi River, which flows into the Bay of Bengal, were known as Odradesha, or "country of the Odra."

The hilly nature of Orissa once helped many small kingdoms thrive. From the fourth century bc on, however, major states such as Kalinga extended their control over much of the area. During the fourth and fifth centuries ad, a foreign people (possibly Greeks) rose to power in the region, followed by a series of local dynasties. The end of the eleventh century saw the rise of the Eastern Gangas, whose rule ushered in a golden era in Orissa's history. This dynasty remained a Hindu stronghold until Muslim rulers from Bengal conquered it in 1568. Orissa subsequently became part of the Mughal Empire, but its western areas later fell to the Marathas. The British acquired the coastal regions in 1757 and the Maratha-held lands in 1803. Orissa assumed its current form in 1947 when India gained its independence from Britain.

2 LOCATION

Oriyas make up about 75 percent of Orissa's population with the rest belonging to various tribal groups. Oriyas traditionally lived at the delta of the Mahanadi River and in coastal lowlands along the Bay of Bengal. The Garjat Hills and Eastern Ghats are hills on the edge of India's Deccan Plateau, and they lie inland within Oriya land. To the west of these hills are interior plateaus. These hills and plateaus are some of the most heavily forested regions in India. The Mahanadi River flows across the middle of the state. Orissa receives about 60 inches (150 centimeters) of rainfall during the monsoon season, which begins in July and ends in October. It has cool winters with temperatures of about 68° F (20° C). In mid-February, the thermometer begins to climb as the hot, humid summer weather approaches. In June, average temperatures approach 85° F (30° C).

3 LANGUAGE

Oriya is an Indo-Aryan language closely related to Bengali, Assamese, and other languages of eastern India. It has its own script and is one of official languages of India. Spoken Oriya varies throughout the region.

4 FOLKLORE

Puri, a coastal town located at the south end of the Mahanadi Delta, has a famous shrine to Krishna in his form of Jagannath (lord of the universe). As one story goes, a hunter saw Krishna in the forest, thought he was a deer and killed him. He left the deity's body under a tree, where a pious person found it, cremated it, and placed the ashes in a box. The god Vishnu then asked a king to make an image from these sacred relics. The king asked Vishvakarman, an artisan, to do the work. He said he would if he were allowed to do it without being disturbed. The king became impatient after fifteen days and disturbed the artisan. The artisan was so angry that he never finished the work. To this day, the image is only a stump without arms or legs. The god Brahma gave the image its eyes and a soul. The temple in Puri keeps this legend alive by representing Krishna as a block of wood.

5 RELIGION

Oriya are mostly Hindu. They worship Shiva, the Mother Goddess, the Sun God, and many other Hindu deities. The Vaishnava sect particularly reveres Krishna in his form as Jagannath.

Many local deities and spirits also influence Oriya life and activities. Often, they are believed to cause disease, and must either be appeased or handed over to shamans (kalisi) healers who deal with them.

6 MAJOR HOLIDAYS

Oriya celebrate most Hindu festivals and several regional holidays. Their biggest regional holiday is the Chariot Procession (Ratha Yatra) of Jagannath in Puri. It takes place in June or July, and attracts visitors from all over India. Images of Jagannath and two lesser deities are taken from the Jagannath temple to a country house about 2 miles (3 kilometers) away. The images are placed in cars or chariots and pulled by pilgrims. The word "juggernaut" comes from "Jagannath" and refers to the god's massive chariot.

7 RITES OF PASSAGE

Most babies are born at home. Village women give birth by squatting, with a piece of cloth tied tightly around the abdomen. They grip a wooden pole to cope with labor pains. Male babies are greeted with special joy. After seven days, rites of purification are observed. The name-giving ceremony is held on the twenty-first day.

Children are the center of family life. They are spoiled and fussed over, but later they begin to share household tasks. Girls are usually segregated for seven days when they first menstruate. In some communities, they rub turmeric paste on their bodies and bathe before resuming their domestic and social activities.

The dead are cremated, although children and unmarried persons are usually buried. The corpse is anointed with turmeric, washed, and wrapped in a shroud. It is carried to the cremation ground by relatives, and placed on the funeral pyre with the head toward the north. Some groups place women facing up and men facing down. Relatives shave their own heads and don new clothes, and on the eleventh day they hold a feast.

8 RELATIOSHIPS

Caste (social class) plays an important role in daily relationships. People often greet newcomers by asking which caste they belong to.

9 LIVING CONDITIONS

Oriya mostly live in villages. Their villages usually have houses built along the sides of a single street and a small hamlet outside the central area where lower caste families live. Houses are usually rectangular and have mud walls and a gabled roof thatched with straw. Sometimes, richer families have a double roof, a small guest house, and a fence. Rooms in a typical Oriya home are used as cattle sheds, grain storage areas, bedrooms, and kitchens. Usually, part of the kitchen is set aside as an area where the family can pray. Furnishings include wooden beds, tables, and chairs. Oriya often decorate their walls with pictures of gods and goddesses, political leaders, and film stars.

10 FAMILY LIFE

Oriya prefer to marry within their caste or subcaste, and outside their clan. An Oriya proverb states that "marital relatives from distant places are beautiful, as distant hills are enchanting," and so people often seek a marital partner from outside their village. Marriages are arranged. The daughter-inlaw usually lives with her husband's family. Divorce is uncommon.

11 CLOTHING

Men wear a dhoti (long piece of white cotton wrapped around the waist and drawn between the legs and tucked into the waist) and a chaddar (shawl draped over the shoulders). Women wear the sari (a length of fabric wrapped around the waist, with one end thrown over the right shoulder) and choli (tight-fitting, cropped blouse).

12 FOOD

Oriya generally eat rice at every meal. At breakfast, cold rice, puffed rice (mudhi), or various types of rice cake (pitha) are eaten with molasses or salt, and tea. Thin rice pancakes are a specialty of Orissa. A typical meal consists of rice, dal (lentils), and vegetable curry using eggplant, spinach, and seasonal vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbages, or peas. Fish or goat meat also may be served. Food is cooked in mustard oil, except for offerings to the gods. Those offerings are prepared in clarified butter (ghee). A particular favorite in villages is a rice dish called pakhala bata. Rice is boiled in bulk, and whatever is not eaten is stored in cold water. When this rice becomes a little sour, it is served cold with fresh green chilies. This dish is popular in summer, when it is eaten with curds and green mangoes. Bananas, coconuts, and limes are the main fruits of the region. Oriya are fond of sweets such as sherbets, cookies, and drinks. Some Oriya drink a toddy (hot drink) made from fermented dates. Hashish (similar to marijuana) is combined with yogurt to make a drink called bhang and is drunk socially and at festivals.

Food plays an important role in Oriya ritual. At the feast for Shiva, for example, villagers prepare a huge, steamed rice cake made in the shape of a lingam (Shiva's phallic symbol) and stuffed with cheese, molasses, and coconut. It is dyed red and is worshiped before being eaten. More than fifty types of rice cake are cooked to be offered at the Jagannath Temple at Puri.

13 EDUCATION

Orissa has a literacy rate (percentage of the population who can read and write) of under 50 percent. More people tend to know how to read and write in cities than in villages. Girls rarely proceed beyond primary school. Orissa has several government-run colleges and five universities. One of these, the Shri Jagannath Sanskrit University at Puri, is devoted to Sanskrit culture.

14 CULTURAL HERITAGE

Chronicles of the Jagannath Temple at Puri date from the twelfth century ad. Medieval bhakti (devotional) poets have left Oriya literature with a rich tradition. Orissa also is famous for its dance, music, and architecture. Odissi, for instance, is a classical dance that originated as a temple dance for the gods. The Chhau dance, performed by masked male dancers in honor of Shiva, is another feature of Oriya culture. Cuttack is a major center for dance and music.

Oriya culture also includes vivid dances and songs, folk opera (jatra), puppet plays, and shadow plays (where the shadows of the characters are projected onto a screen using puppets).

Painting of icons (patta paintings), palm leaf painting, and woodcarving are important artistic traditions in Orissa. Orissan temples are decorated with carvings and sculptures and have a distinct style. The Sun Temple at Konarak is considered to be a particular Orissan masterpiece.

15 WORK

Most Oriya grow rice. The state of Orissa accounts for about 10 percent of India's total rice output. Farmers still use a great deal of animal power and traditional tools. Cash crops include oilseeds, pulses (legumes), sugarcane, jute, and coconuts. Fishing is important in coastal areas. Many families also make traditional handicrafts. Since independence in 1947, some industrial development has occurred.

16 SPORTS

Children play ball, tag, and hide-and-seek. They also like to spin tops and fly kites. Traditional games for adults include cards and dice. Bodybuilding and wrestling are common sports for men, and kabaddi (team wrestling) is very popular. Cricket, soccer, and field hockey are played in schools.

17 RECREATION

Oriya enjoy folk dances and songs, puppet plays, and shadow plays. They also like a form of folk opera known as jatra.

18 CRAFTS AND HOBBIES

Orissa is known for its handicrafts, particularly its little carved wooden replicas of Jagannath. Painted masks and wooden animal toys for children also are popular. Local sculptors make soapstone copies of temple sculptures for pilgrims and tourists. Textiles include appliqué work, embroidery, tie-dyed fabrics, and various types of hand-loomed cloth. The artisans of Cuttack are skilled in filigree work and make gold and silver jewelry. Local artisans also produce brassware and items made from bell metal (an alloy of copper and tin). Orissa also is known for its tie-dyed saris. Village women often like to ornament their bodies with tattoos.

19 SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Orissa is one of the poorest states of India. Much of the region lacks a safe drinking-water supply, adequate schools, roads, and electricity. Alcoholism is such a problem that there is a popular movement to prohibit drinking.

20 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ardley, Bridget. India. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Silver Burdett Press, 1989.

Barker, Amanda. India. Crystal Lake, Ill.: Ribgy Interactive Library, 1996.

Cumming, David. India. New York: Bookwright, 1991.

Das, Prodeepta. Inside India. New York: F. Watts, 1990.

Dolcini, Donatella. India in the Islamic Era and Southeast Asia (8th to 19th century). Austin, Tex.: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1997.

Kalman, Bobbie. India: The Culture. Toronto: Crabtree Publishing Co., 1990.

Pandian, Jacob. The Making of India and Indian Traditions. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1995.

Shalant, Phyllis. Look What We've Brought You from India: Crafts, Games, Recipes, Stories, and Other Cultural Activities from Indian Americans. Parsippany, N.J.: Julian Messner, 1998.

WEBSITES

Consulate General of India in New York. [Online] Available http://www.indiaserver.com/cginyc/, 1998.

Embassy of India, Washington, D.C. [Online] Available http://www.indianembassy.org/, 1998.

Interknowledge Corporation. [Online] Available http://www.interknowledge.com/india/, 1998.

World Travel Guide. India. [Online] Available http://www.wtgonline.com/country/in/gen.html, 1998.

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"Oriya." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Oriya." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/oriya

"Oriya." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/oriya

Oriya

Oriya (ôrē´yə) or Odia (ôdē´ə), language belonging to the Indic group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. See Indo-Iranian.

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"Oriya." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Oriya." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/oriya

"Oriya." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/oriya

Oriya

OriyaAchaea, aliyah, Almería, Apia, Bahía, Caesarea, Cassiopeia, Chaldea, Cytherea, Euboea, foreseer, freer, galleria, gynaecea, Iphigenia, Kampuchea, kea, keyer, Latakia, Leah, Lucia, Nicaea, Nicosia, onomatopoeia, Oriya, Pangaea, Pantelleria, pharmacopoeia, pizzeria, ria, rupiah, sangría, seer, sharia, Shia, skier, spiraea (US spirea), Tanzania, taqueria, Tarpeia, Thea, trachea, trattoria, urea •sightseer

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"Oriya." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Oriya." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/oriya

"Oriya." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/oriya