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column

column, vertical architectural support, circular or polygonal in plan. A column is generally at least four or five times as high as its diameter or width; stubbier freestanding masses of masonry are usually called piers or pillars, particularly those with a rectangular plan. In fully developed Egyptian architecture the columns were of gigantic size, spaced very closely together, and were reserved for inner courtyards and halls. In the Aegean area, in pre-Hellenic times, the column type known to have been used is one with a cushionlike cap and with its shaft tapering downward. Subsequent types were the archaic forms of Doric, developed by the Dorians after their coming (before 1000 BC) into the region. By the 7th cent. BC this Greek Doric had been established in its design. The columns of classical architecture represent the attempt to design proportionings and details that would create maximum structural harmony. It is in the Greek temples of the Periclean Age (5th cent. BC), notably in the Parthenon, that the ideal was obtained. In Greek, Roman, and Renaissance architecture the various column types, taken together with the entablatures that they support, form the classical orders of architecture. The classical column has the three fundamental elements of base, shaft, and capital. The shaft has a gradual upward tapering (entasis), and the capital that crowns it provides a decorative and structural transition between the circular column and the rectangular entablature. The Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian column types advanced toward perfect proportions and details and formed the basis for the columnar architecture of the Romans. Although Greek columns always had vertical channels or flutes cut in their shafts, those of the Romans were often without them. In Greek buildings the columns were usually structurally indispensable, but the Romans and later the Renaissance and modern architects used them often also as a decorative feature, mostly following fixed rules of proportions. The columns of Romanesque, Byzantine, and Gothic buildings were usually structural elements and were without canons of proportioning. The capitals of the Romanesque and Gothic were often variously decorated with plant and animal forms. The columns of Chinese and Japanese architecture are circular or polygonal wood posts, with bases but without capitals, having instead an ornamented projecting bracket. In Indian architecture columns exhibit great variety of detail: shafts, bases, and capitals are often intricately ornamented. In modern construction most columns are of either steel or reinforced concrete. See Doric order; Ionic order; Corinthian order; capital.

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"column." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"column." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/column

"column." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/column

column

col·umn / ˈkäləm/ • n. 1. an upright pillar, typically cylindrical and made of stone or concrete, supporting an entablature, arch, or other structure or standing alone as a monument. ∎  a similar vertical, roughly cylindrical thing: a column of smoke. ∎  an upright shaft forming part of a machine and typically used for controlling it: a Spitfire control column. 2. a vertical division of a page or text. ∎  a vertical arrangement of figures or other information. ∎  a section of a newspaper or magazine regularly devoted to a particular subject or written by a particular person. 3. one or more lines of people or vehicles moving in the same direction. we walked in a column. ∎  Mil. a narrow-fronted deep formation of troops in successive lines. ∎  a military force deployed in such a formation. ∎  a similar formation of ships in a fleet or convoy. DERIVATIVES: co·lum·nar / kəˈləmnər/ adj. col·umned / ˈkäləmd/ adj.

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"column." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"column." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column-0

"column." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved August 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column-0

column

column.
1. Detached rather slender vertical structural element, sometimes monolithic, usually circular (but sometimes square or polygonal) on plan, normally carrying an entablature or lintel, but sometimes standing on its own with a statue on top as a monument. In the Classical Orders, a column consists of a base, shaft, and capital (except for the Greek Doric Order, which has no base), and the shaft tapers towards the top in a gentle curve called entasis. Columns are distinct from piers and pillars.

2. Any relatively slender vertical structural member in compression, supporting a load acting near the direction of its main axis. See also angular, antonine, band, barley-sugar, block, carolitic, cluster, colonnade, columniation, composite, corinthian, detached, doric, engaged, grouped, intercolumniation, ionic, order, portico, solomonic, spiral, torso, trajanic, triumphal, tuscan, twisted.

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"column." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"column." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column

"column." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved August 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column

column

column In architecture, a vertical post, supporting part of a building. A column may be free-standing, with a capital, base and shaft, or it may be partly attached to a wall. Triumphal columns such as Trajan's Column in Rome, have narrative reliefs to depict battle victories. Annulated columns, clustered together by rings or bands, were popular in medieval England. See also orders of architecture

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"column." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"column." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/column

"column." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved August 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/column

Column

Column

anything resembling a vertical or horizontal column; an upright mass of water or air. See also pillar.

Examples: column of accountantsLipton, 1970; of air, 1833; of atmosphere, 1700; of infantry [on the march]; of majesty, 1619; of mercury, 1878; of numbers of ships, 1805; of smoke, 1715; of society, 1862; of state, 1725; of troops, 1677.

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"Column." Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Column." Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column-0

"Column." Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms. . Retrieved August 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column-0

column

column pillar XV; vertical division of a page, etc. XV. Partly — OF. columpne (mod. colonne), partly — its source L. columna pillar, f. *col-, var. of *cel-, as in *cellere (see EXCEL), celsus high.
So columnar XVIII, columniated XVIII, columniation XVII.

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"column." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"column." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column-1

"column." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved August 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column-1

column

column (kol-ŭm) n. (in anatomy) any pillar-shaped structure, especially any of the tracts of grey matter found in the spinal cord.

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"column." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"column." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column

"column." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Retrieved August 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/caregiving/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column

column

column •amalgam • Targum • begum •Brigham • lingam • ogham • sorghum •Nahum • Belgium • dodgem •Brummagem • stratagem • Rackham •Malcolm • Ascham • Beckham •welcome • vade mecum • stickum •dinkum • modicum • hypericum •capsicum • viaticum • practicum •Occam •hokum, locum, oakum •bunkum •alum, Calum, mallam, vallum •Pablum •Haarlem, Harlem, Malayalam, slalom •antebellum, cerebellum, elm, helm, overwhelm, pelham, realm, underwhelm, vellum •emblem • bedlam • peplum •exemplum • wychelm • Kenelm •Salem • velum •aspergillum, chillum, film, vexillum •Whitlam • clingfilm • telefilm •microfilm •asylum, hilum, phylum, whilom •column, olm, solemn •problem • golem • hoodlum • Ulmincunabulum, pabulum •coagulum • pendulum • speculum •curriculum • cimbalom • paspalum •Absalom • Jerusalem • tantalum

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"column." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"column." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column

"column." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved August 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/column