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Point Four

POINT FOUR

POINT FOUR was a foreign aid program to assist the poor in so-called underdeveloped countries. In his second inaugural address in 1949, President Harry S. Truman called for this "bold new program" as part of an overall effort to promote peace and freedom. Inviting other nations to participate, he called for the program to be a "worldwide effort" for the achievement of "peace, plenty, and freedom" through technical assistance, private foreign investment, and greater production. In the first phase of the Cold War, and in the wake of the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Point Four was designed as an offer to the emerging nations to decide against communism—to become neutral or non-aligned. Although Truman stood behind this sweeping but illdefined program, almost half a year had passed before he asked Congress for the initial appropriations of $45 million. It then took Congress until the end of May 1950 to pass Point Four as the Act for International Development. For the first year, only $29.9 million were appropriated. Without stable conditions, trade agreements, and guarantees, businesses were reluctant to invest, particularly in those countries needing foreign capital the most. In 1952 and 1953, the Technical Cooperation Administration, which implemented Point Four, received a little more than $300 million to provide technical assistance. By 1954, Point Four was overseen by the Foreign Operations Administration and its budget had reached $400 million. Hundreds of Point Four technicians visited dozens of impoverished nations, and thousands of students from these countries were invited to study in the United States. Like the Marshall Plan, Point Four was directed by the United States and not through the United Nations. This led to criticisms of undue American influence in the internal affairs of developing nations. The ambitious ideals proclaimed by Truman clashed with the realities of the Cold War and the Korean War (1950–1953), and they were largely incompatible with the profit orientation of private business.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bingham, Jonathan B. Shirt-sleeve Diplomacy: Point 4 in Action. New York: John Doyle, 1954.

MichaelWala

See alsoCold War ; Foreign Aid .

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Point Four

POINT FOUR

U.S. aid program to the Middle East under the Truman Doctrine.

The name refers to the fourth point made in U.S. president Harry Truman's 1949 inaugural speech, wherein he cited the need to support democracy and economic stability where small nations are threatened by outside (that is, Soviet) influence.

Point Four led to unprecedented U.S. military and economic aid to the Middle East, allocated under various programs, expanding aid given to Turkey and Greece under the Marshall Plan since 1947. Of the $2.94 billion in military equipment sent to the region during the 1950s, Turkey received $1.87 billion, with Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia receiving lesser amounts. Aid also went to agricultural projects and to Palestinian refugees.


Bibliography


Bryson, Thomas A. American Diplomatic Relations with the Middle East, 17841975: A Survey. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1977.

elizabeth thompson

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"Point Four." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Point Four." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved August 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/point-four

Point Four program

Point Four program, U.S. foreign aid project aimed at providing technological skills, knowledge, and equipment to poor nations throughout the world. The program also encouraged the flow of private investment capital to these nations. The project received its name from the fourth point of a program set forth in President Truman's 1949 inaugural address. In the cold war the U.S. government used Point Four to win support from uncommitted nations. From 1950 until 1953, Point Four aid was administered by the Technical Cooperation Administration, a separate unit within the Dept. of State. During the administration of President Eisenhower it was integrated into the overall foreign aid program.

See J. B. Bingham, Shirt-sleeve Diplomacy: Point 4 in Action (1954).

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Point Four program

Point Four program US plan to share its scientific and technological knowledge with less developed countries. The plan received its name after it was first proposed by President Truman in his 1949 inaugural address. The plan was funded by the USA, the United Nations and the recipient countries. By 1950 the plan had been included in general US foreign policy.

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"Point Four program." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Point Four program." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved August 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/point-four-program