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Gadsden Purchase

GADSDEN PURCHASE

GADSDEN PURCHASE. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)ended the Mexican-American War but it did not settle the so-called Mexican question. The United States was soon charged with not enforcing Article XI, which promised Mexico protection from inroads of American Indians. A boundary-line dispute also arose involving territory held necessary by some Americans for a southern railroad route to the Pacific Ocean. The activities of American speculators in Mexico increased diplomatic tension. In 1849 P. A. Hargous of New York City purchased the Garay grant, made in 1842 by the Mexican government to open a transit concession across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Mexico nullified this concession in 1851, but in 1853 A. G. Sloo was given an almost identical

grant. Both Hargous and Sloo demanded American protection for their concessions.

In July 1853 President Franklin Pierce instructed James Gadsden, minister to Mexico, to make a treaty not only settling the issues involved but also securing enough territory for the proposed southern railroad route. Financial needs of the administration of Antonio López de Santa Anna aided negotiation of a treaty whereby territory in northern Mexico was sold to the United States. The Gadsden Treaty, as it became known, abrogated Article XI of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, but the United States was to aid in suppressing Indian depredations. For these concessions the United States would pay Mexico $15 million and assume all claims of its citizens against Mexico, including the Hargous claim. The United States promised to cooperate in suppressing filibustering expeditions.

The treaty met strong opposition in the Senate, where antislavery senators condemned further acquisition of slave territory. Lobbying by speculators worsened the treaty's reputation. Some senators objected to furnishing Santa Anna financial assistance. The Senate, by a narrow margin, ratified the treaty on 25 April 1854, but only after reducing the territory to be acquired to that considered essential for the railroad route. The Senate also deleted all mention of private claims and filibustering expeditions. The payment to Mexico was lowered to $10 million, and the Senate inserted an article promising American protection to the Sloo grantees. A combination of the advocates of the southern railroad route and the friends of the Sloo grant made ratification possible.

By the Gadsden Treaty the United States secured 45,535 square miles of territory. This tract became known as the Gadsden Purchase and today encompasses the southern part of Arizona and New Mexico.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Fehrenbacher, Don E. The Era of Expansion: 1800–1848. New York: Wiley, 1969.

Garber, Paul Neff. The Gadsden Treaty. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1959.

Potter, David Morris. The Impending Crisis, 1848–1861. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.

Paul NeffGarber/a. g.

See alsoBryan-Chamorro Treaty ; Compromise of 1850 ; Confirmation by the Senate ; Indian Claims Commission ; Mexican-American War ; Soto, Hernando de, Explorations of .

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Gadsden Purchase

GADSDEN PURCHASE


The Gadsden Purchase of 1853 was the last territory acquired by the United States within the boundaries of the lower 48 states. In 1853, President Franklin Pierce (18531857) instructed James Gadsden, his minister to Mexico, to buy as much of the northern Mexico territory as possible, with the idea of using it as a southern route for a transcontinental railroad. Gadsden, a former railroad administrator from South Carolina who had long supported a southern railroad linking the Gulf Coast with California, was given instructions to offer Mexican leader Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (17941876) up to $50 million for some 250,000 square milesincluding the Gila River basin in modern Arizona, parts of Baja California, and the bits of northern Mexico that had not been annexed in the Mexican War (18461848).

The purchase was part of Pierce's plan to unite a divided country by expanding American interests aggressively into foreign territories, a plan known as "Young America." The Gadsden Purchase was opposed by Northern antislavery senators, who suspected Pierce's long-range plan was to obtain land for the expansion of slaveryan explosive political issue in the early 1850s. It was also opposed by some southern senators who wanted even more land. Unable to stop the deal, these senators managed to limit Pierce's purchase to 55,000 square miles for $15 million.

The Gadsden Purchase added to U.S. territory, but it also emphasized the gulf that separated North and South. Some northern senators who opposed the Purchase were under pressure to do so from northern railroad interests. By December 1853, a rail route that ran through the Gadsden Purchase had already been completed, and the northern interests were campaigning hard for territory north of the Missouri Compromise line to be organized. This led to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which broke the Compromise and allowed expansion of slavery into areas from which it had legally been excluded 34 years earlier. The northern railroad was finally established in the Pacific Railway Act (1862), which set aside public land for the building of the first transcontinental railroad, completed in 1869.

See also: Transcontinental Railroad

FURTHER READING

Cochran, Thomas Childs. Frontiers of Change: Early Industrialism in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Garber, Paul Neff. The Gadsden Treaty. Philadelphia: Press of the University of Pennsylvania, 1923.

Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union. New York: Collier Books, 1992.

Potter, David Morris. The Impending Crisis 1848 1861. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.

Taylor, George Rogers. The Transportation Revolution, 18151860. New York: Rinehart, 1951.

the only expansionist achievement of the pierce administration was the gadsden purchase. and even that came to less than southerners had hoped.

james m. mcpherson, battle cry of freedom: the civil war era, 1988

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"Gadsden Purchase." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gadsden Purchase." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gadsden-purchase

"Gadsden Purchase." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Retrieved April 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gadsden-purchase

Gadsden Purchase

Gadsden Purchase (gădz´dən), strip of land purchased (1853) by the United States from Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) had described the U.S.-Mexico boundary vaguely, and President Pierce wanted to insure U.S. possession of the Mesilla Valley near the Rio Grande—the most practicable route for a southern railroad to the Pacific. James Gadsden negotiated the purchase, and the U.S. Senate ratified (1854) it by a narrow margin. The area of c.30,000 sq mi (77,700 sq km), purchased for $10 million, now forms extreme S New Mexico and Arizona S of the Gila.

See P. N. Garber, The Gadsden Treaty (1923, repr. 1959); O. B. Faulk, Too Far North, Too Far South (1967).

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"Gadsden Purchase." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Gadsden Purchase." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gadsden-purchase

Gadsden Purchase

Gadsden Purchase Land purchased by the USA from Mexico in 1853. It was a narrow strip, 77,000sq km (30,000sq mi) in area, now forming s Arizona and New Mexico. The deal was negotiated by James Gadsden.

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"Gadsden Purchase." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Gadsden Purchase." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved April 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gadsden-purchase