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Albany, John Stewart, 2nd duke of

Albany, John Stewart, 2nd duke of [S] (1484–1536). When James IV of Scotland was killed at Flodden in 1513, his son was 17 months old. Albany, a grandson of James II, was heir presumptive. His father had laid claim to the Scottish throne but was defeated and fled to France. Albany was summoned to become regent to his young cousin and held office from 1515 until 1524. Bred in France, Albany strove to restore the Franco-Scottish alliance and by the treaty of Rouen (1517) negotiated marriage for James V to a French princess. From 1517 to 1521 Albany was in France, weakening his Scottish position. In 1521 he effected a reconciliation with Margaret, the king's mother and sister to Henry VIII, and there were rumours of a possible marriage. In 1522 Henry VIII went to war, protesting that the king's life was in jeopardy, but Albany's grand preparations came to nothing. He resumed the contest in 1523 but again the campaign against northern England misfired, and he returned to France for good in 1524. The enduring legacy of his regency was a French marriage for James, though it did not take place until 1537.

J. A. Cannon

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"Albany, John Stewart, 2nd duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 30 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Albany, John Stewart, 2nd duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 30, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/albany-john-stewart-2nd-duke

"Albany, John Stewart, 2nd duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved April 30, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/albany-john-stewart-2nd-duke

Albany Regency

Albany Regency, name given, after 1820, to the leaders of the first political machine, which was developed in New York state by Martin Van Buren. The name derived from the charge that Van Buren's principal supporters, residing in Albany, managed the machine for him while he served in the U.S. Senate. During the Jacksonian period the Regency controlled the Democratic party in New York. It was one of the first effective political machines, using the spoils system and rigid party discipline to maintain its control. Notable figures in the Regency were William L. Marcy, Silas Wright, Azariah C. Flagg, and the elder Benjamin F. Butler. After 1842 it split into factions (Barnburners and Hunkers) over issues of internal improvements and slavery, thereby losing its power.

See J. D. Hammond, The History of Political Parties in the State of New York (3 vol., 1852); R. Remini, Martin Van Buren and the Making of the Democratic Party (1959).

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"Albany Regency." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 30 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Albany Regency

ALBANY REGENCY

ALBANY REGENCY. In the early 1820s, New York "Bucktail" Republicans led by Martin Van Buren fashioned an organization to impose discipline on their faction-ridden, personality-dominated state party. Dubbed the "Albany Regency," their apparatus became famous, and notorious, as the prototypical political machine, using caucuses and patronage to control its ranks and rewarding loyalty with political promotion. The organization backed Andrew Jackson for president in 1828 and affiliated with the Jackson-led national Democratic Party. It elevated Van Buren to national stature along with New York senators William L. Marcy (spokesman for the political Spoils System) and Silas Wright. It lost its dominance in state politics with the rise of the Whigs and dissolved into factions in the 1840s.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Remini, Robert V. Martin Van Buren and the Making of the Democratic Party. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.

DanielFeller

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"Albany Regency." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. 30 Apr. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Albany Regency." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 30, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/albany-regency

"Albany Regency." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved April 30, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/albany-regency