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Assiniboin

Assiniboin

ETHNONYMS: Assiniboine, Assinipwat, Fish-Eaters, Hohe, Stoneys, Stonies

The Assiniboin are a Siouan-speaking group who separated from the Nakota (Yanktonnai) in northern Minnesota sometime before 1640 and moved northward to ally themselves with the Cree near Lake Winnipeg. Later in the century they began to move westward, eventually settling in the basins of the Saskatchewan and Assiniboine rivers in Canada, and in Montana and North Dakota north of the Milk and Missouri rivers. With the disappearance of the bison (the mainstay of their subsistence) in the middle of the nineteenth century, they were forced to relocate to several reservations and reserves in Montana, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. Population estimates for the tribe ranged from eighteen thousand to thirty thousand in the eighteenth century. Today there are perhaps fifty-five hundred living on the Fort Belknap and Fort Peck reservations in Montana and in Canadian reserves, the largest being at Morley on the upper Bow River in Alberta.

The Assiniboin were a typical plains bison-hunting tribe; they were nomadic and lived in hide tipis. They usually employed the dog travois for transporting goods, although the horse was sometimes used. Famed as the greatest horse raiders on the Northern Plains, the Assiniboin were also fierce warriors. They were generally on friendly terms with Whites but regularly engaged in warfare against the Blackfoot and Gros Ventre. Many were converted to Methodism by Wesleyan missionaries during the nineteenth century, but the Grass Dance, Thirst Dance, and Sun Dance remained Important ceremonials. After the Second World War, the Alberta Stoneys became much involved in political activism and cultural betterment through the Indian Association of Alberta. An Assiniboin-language school and university-level courses are offered at the reserve at Morley.


Bibliography

Dempsey, Hugh A. (1978). "Stoney Indians." In Indian Tribes of Alberta, 43-50. Calgary: Glenbow-Alberta Institute.

Kennedy, Dan (1972). Recollections of an Assiniboine Chief, edited and with an introduction by James R. Stevens. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.

Lowie, Robert H. (1910). The Assiniboine. American Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Papers 4, 1-270. New York.

Notzke, Claudia (1985). Indian Reserves in Canada: Development Problems of the Stoney and Peigan Reserves in Alberta. Marburger Geographische Schriften, no. 97. Marburg/Lahn.

Whyte, Jon (1985). Indians in the Rockies. Banff, Alberta: Altitude Publishing.

Writers' Program, Montana (1961). The Assiniboines: From the Accounts of the Old Ones Told to First Boy (James Larpenteur Long). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

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Assiniboin

Assiniboin (əsĬn´əboin´), Native North Americans whose culture is that of the N Great Plains; their language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). At the time of the first contact with European settlers they had no permanent village sites; they moved about as their search for food required. They were a branch of the Yanktonai Dakota, who moved north and westward prior to the 17th cent. to the region of Lake Winnipeg; later they went to the upper Saskatchewan and the upper Missouri rivers. After the acquisition of horses and firearms in the 18th cent. they became a typical Plains tribe. They were allied with the Cree against the Blackfoot. A large tribe at the time of contact, they were decimated by smallpox in the early 19th cent. There were 5,500 Assiniboin in the United States in 1990, most living on the Fort Belknap and Fort Peck reservations in Montana. Around 1,500 Assiniboin live on reserves in Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada.

See M. S. Kennedy, ed., The Assiniboines (new ed. 1961); D. Kennedy, Recollections of an Assiniboine Chief, ed. by J. R. Stevens (1972); E. T. Denig, Five Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri (1975).

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"Assiniboin." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Assiniboin

As·sin·i·boin / əˈsinəˌboin/ (also As·sin·i·boine) • n. (pl. same or -boins) 1. a member of an American Indian people formerly living in southern Manitoba, but now living in Montana, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. 2. the Siouan language of this people. • adj. of or relating to the Assiniboin or their language.

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"Assiniboin." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Assiniboin." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved August 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/assiniboin