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Amiens, Treaty of

AMIENS, TREATY OF

Treaty that brought peace to Europe under Napoléon, as signed by England and France, 27 March 1802.

The Napoleonic wars had reached a point where France and England concluded that further fighting was useless. Under the terms of the treaty, all of England's conquests were surrendered to France, but Napoléon Bonaparte delayed the signing because he still hoped to retain Egypt, which he had invaded in 1798; after his troops there capitulated to the British, however, he agreed to return Egypt to the Ottoman Empire and Malta to the Order of the Knights of Malta. Because of the treaty, peace was also concluded between France and the Ottomans. Napoléon became consul for life of the French Empire, with the right of appointing his successor, but his interlude was brief and Napoléon hinted at the possible reconquest of Egypt.

Britain, during this period, could not abide French control of Europe under Napoléon and refused to evacuate Malta. By 1803, war had resumed. Napoléon never managed to recover his position in the eastern Mediterranean.

see also bonaparte, napolÉon.

Bibliography


Lefebvre, Georges. Napoleon: From Tilsit to Waterloo, 18071815, translated by J. E. Anderson. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969.

Jon Jucovy

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"Amiens, Treaty of." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Amiens, Treaty of." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/amiens-treaty

"Amiens, Treaty of." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/amiens-treaty

Amiens, treaty of

Amiens, treaty of, 1802. The treaty provided the only break in the long war between Britain and revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 to 1814. By 1801 the conflict was near to stalemate. Britain had been unable to co-ordinate effective coalitions and her raids on the continent had proved unsuccessful: France had lost control of the seas and was unable to deliver a knock-out blow. The resignation of Pitt in 1801 made it easier for his successor Addington to seek peace. Britain retained Ceylon and Trinidad but restored the Cape of Good Hope to the Dutch. Malta was to be given back to the Knights of St John and guaranteed. The French were to withdraw from Naples and central Italy and Egypt was to return to Turkish rule. Each side dragged its feet on fulfilling the terms and the peace, little more than an armed truce, lasted only until May 1803, when Britain declared war. Napoleon then began planning an invasion of England.

J. A. Cannon

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"Amiens, treaty of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Amiens, treaty of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/amiens-treaty

"Amiens, treaty of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/amiens-treaty

Amiens, Treaty of

Treaty of Amiens, 1802, peace treaty signed by France, Spain, and the Batavian Republic on the one hand and Great Britain on the other. It is generally regarded as marking the end of the French Revolutionary Wars and setting the stage for the Napoleonic Wars (see Napoleon I). By its terms England was to give up most conquests made in the wars and France was to evacuate Naples and restore Egypt to the Ottoman Empire. England retained Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Trinidad but abandoned its claim to the French throne. The peace, though much acclaimed, lasted barely a year; in 1803, England refused to restore Malta to the Knights Hospitalers, thereby causing a resumption of hostilities.

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"Amiens, Treaty of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Amiens, Treaty of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/amiens-treaty

"Amiens, Treaty of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/amiens-treaty