ALTERNATE NAMES: Shuar
LANGUAGE: Jivaro; Quechua
RELIGION: Traditional mystical and spiritual beliefs
1 • INTRODUCTION
The Jivaro are a tribe of people from the Andes mountains. The name "Jivaro" was given to this group of people by Spanish conquerors. The Jivaro prefer the name Shuar. Their history as great warriors goes back to the days of the expansion of the Inca empire when the Jivaro fought to remain free of Inca control. They also battled the Spanish during the Spanish Conquest. In the centuries following the conquest, the Jivaro continued to fight modern society, resisting successive waves of missionaries. Once known for their practice of shrinking human heads, some Jivaro are quickly adapting to contemporary life. No longer isolated from society, their traditional life-style is fading as their villages adopt modern ways. Most Jivaro, however, remain isolated and continue to live a traditional way of life.
2 • LOCATION
The Jivaro live on the eastern slopes of the Andes where mountain ranges meet the Amazon River headwaters. This tropical forest region is characterized by frequent, heavy rainfall and dense tropical vegetation. The Jivaro are mainly concentrated in Ecuador. Current estimates place the population at approximately 10,000 to 30,000 people.
3 • LANGUAGE
The Jivaro speak Jivaroan, which has many dialects. Many Jivaro now also speak the Quechua language, which is spoken throughout the Andes region.
4 • FOLKLORE
The Jivaro have a rich mythology. A variety of ancient myths have been passed down through the generations to explain the origins of the Jivaro people. In one story, the Andean foothills were subject to a severe flood, killing all but two brothers. When the waters receded and the brothers returned to their shelter, they found dishes of food laid out for them by two parrots. One of the brothers caught one of the gift-bearing parrots and married her. This marriage produced three girls and three boys, whose descendants became the Jivaro people.
The boa constrictor holds a unique place in Jivaro mythology. The largest snake in the Amazon basin, it is respected and feared both for its strength and because it is believed to possess supernatural powers.
5 • RELIGION
The Jivaro believe that spiritual forces are responsible for real-world occurrences. They believe spirits inhabit animals, plants, and objects. Many daily customs and behaviors are guided by their desire for spiritual power or to avoid evil spirits. Fearful of witchcraft, the Jivaro often attribute sickness or death to the power of their enemies to cast curses.
The Jivaro worship many deities, or gods. Nungui, or Earth Mother, is believed to have the power to make plants grow. Living deep underground, she emerges at night to dance in the garden. Women sing to Nungui to ask her to protect the garden, and they carefully weed the garden daily to appease her. Jivaro believe in a protective spirit that comes to them in a vision. This spirit, known as arutam, is thought to protect them from injury, disease, and death.
Some Jivaro have been influenced by Christian missionaries
6 • MAJOR HOLIDAYS
Jivaro holidays consist of the various rituals and celebrations that mark major life transitions or events. Jivaro may share in celebrations of national holidays if they are visiting an area where festivities are taking place.
7 • RITES OF PASSAGE
Jivaro rites of passage and celebrations are connected to their spiritual beliefs. All personal milestones and important events have spiritual significance. The most important moment in a young male Jivaro's life is when he is encouraged to gain his arutam or protective spirit. Parents fear that without this protective spirit, Jivaro youths will not survive into adulthood.
At or before puberty, young male Jivaro are led deep into the forest. There they consume a hallucinogenic drug called maikoa and then await a vision of the arutam soul that will protect them from danger. They may remain in the forest for days, fasting and bathing in a waterfall, while they await the sacred vision. If the vision does not come, they return home, then set off again to the forest to make a second attempt. Once this power is received, the boy is allowed to participate in many adult activities.
8 • RELATIONSHIPS
The Jivaro are a very sociable people. When visiting a neighbor or relative's house, guests enjoy a hospitable welcome. Beer made from manioc (cassava) root is offered, and the family meal is shared. Often, if the distances traveled are great, guests are invited to stay for several days. Banana leaves laid on the dirt floor serve as beds for visitors.
These visits also provide an opportunity for men to seek new wives. In contrast to Western cultures, it is the Jivaro men who are fussy about their appearance. A man may spend hours before a visit or party painting his face and putting decorative adornments on his clothes and in his hair. On special occasions, complex geometric designs are painted on the nose and cheekbones. Parrot feathers adorn the hair, and ear sticks are placed through holes in the ear.
Gift-giving is also important among the Jivaro. The fangs of a boa constrictor, thought to bring good luck, are a common gift for a potential bride. If she returns the gestures of affection to her suitor, he may begin negotiations with the woman's father to marry her. Romantic love and mutual attraction are very important in the selection of a spouse. In addition, women seek good hunters and warriors as husbands, while men desire good gardeners and potters. The husband is obligated to pay a bride price (a payment to her family) or perform services for the wife's father.
9 • LIVING CONDITIONS
Jivaro families live in large one-room shelters without internal walls or rooms for privacy. Traditional Jivaro houses are large ovals built from materials found in the forest. These shelters, called jivaria, generally house large families of about eight to ten people. Contemporary Jivaro houses resemble the one pictured on the next page. However, only a small minority of Jivaro live in contemporary houses.
Jivaria houses are built by the male head of the household with help from his male relatives. Houses must be strong to withstand heavy rainfall.
Houses have very simple furniture: lowlying beds made of bamboo (with no mattresses) and shelves to store basic pottery.
The Jivaro are completely without political organization. There are no tribal leaders or community organizations. The only unit of organization is the family group. The Jivaro population is widely dispersed, with an average of one to five miles (one-and-a-half to eight kilometers) between houses. Families live in a house for no more than ten years, since the nearby supply of firewood and small game becomes depleted. Families then move a few miles or kilometers away to an area richer in resources.
10 • FAMILY LIFE
The roles of males and females in Jivaro society are clearly defined and are tied to religious beliefs. The division of labor is partly the result of the belief that most things have either male or female souls. Manioc (cassava), for example, is thought to be female, so all tasks related to the planting, reaping, and processing of manioc are the domain of women. Planting and reaping of corn, which has a male soul, are the responsibility of men.
Most Jivaro families have one or two dogs. They are not kept as pets, but rather as an essential aid to hunting and for protection from enemies. Dogs hold a privileged position in Jivaro households. They receive generous attention and care. In addition, monkeys or birds are sometimes kept as pets.
11 • CLOTHING
Daily dress among the Jivaro is simple. Both men and women wear clothes made of plain brown cloth, occasionally painted with vertical stripes. These homewoven clothes are durable and rugged and can last for many years. The women drape the cloth over one shoulder, sometimes belting it at the waist with bark string or a piece of woven cotton. Men wrap the cloth around the waist so that it reaches down below the knees. A common feature of male attire is the etsemat, a woven band decorated with feathers that is worn around the head.
Ceremonial dress is more elaborate. Men paint their faces with black and red dyes. An ornament made of bird bones is wrapped around the shoulders, signifying the possession of an arutam soul and the spiritual power it provides. More recently, the Jivaro are acquiring Western clothing. These manufactured clothes are often used for special occasions such as visits to neighboring families.
12 • FOOD
The Jivaro have a varied diet of meat and vegetables that they obtain from many sources. The primary foods of their diet are the vegetables grown in their gardens. These are supplemented by searching for wild plantains and other edible plants. Protein in the diet is provided by raising chickens and hunting wild game. As with many other Amazon peoples, the most popular drink among the Jivaro is beer made from fermented manioc (cassava) root.
13 • EDUCATION
Most Jivaro children receive little formal education, although programs are being instituted to educate all Jivaro children. In some remote Jivaro settlements, lessons are broadcast via radio. Jivaro children are also taught the skills needed for survival in the jungle. They learn these basic skills from their parents and elder siblings. For example, they are taught how to swim at a very young age. Due to the widely dispersed population, most children have little contact with playmates other than their siblings.
14 • CULTURAL HERITAGE
Songs and music are a part of Jivaro daily life. Songs accompany many daily events and special occasions. Jivaro men sing special songs while weaving, as do women while gardening. At parties or ceremonial events, flutes and drums made with monkey skins are used to accompany the singing.
15 • EMPLOYMENT
Much of the workday is dedicated to ensuring a constant supply of food. The Jivaro are primarily farmers. They grow several staple crops, including manioc (cassava) root, sweet potatoes, sugar cane, peanuts, and plantains. The women spend a large part of the day keeping the large garden free of weeds. Women are also responsible for producing pottery for storing food and drinks. Young girls tend to the house and are responsible for such tasks as sweeping the floors with banana leaves.
The men have more varied duties, including clearing the forest, collecting firewood, and hunting. They also craft blowguns and spears for hunting game. Making a blowgun can take as long as a couple of weeks from start to finish. Wood from a chonta palm tree is split open, tied together, and hollowed out with a mixture of sand and water. The mouthpiece is made of bone. Darts are made quickly by sharpening palm leaves. Curare, a poison that paralyzes, is placed on the tip of the dart. Darts can be shot nearly one hundred feet (thirty meters) to reach monkeys in trees or large birds.
The Jivaro are no longer completely isolated from modern society. They frequently trade skins and featherworked handicrafts to obtain modern goods. In addition, some Jivaro work as laborers to obtain cash. Particularly valued are machetes, axes, and guns, useful tools for life in the forest.
16 • SPORTS
The Jivaro do not participate in sports.
17 • RECREATION
The Jivaro are a festive people, and parties lasting through the night or even over several days are common. The main form of entertainment is dancing and drinking manioc (cassava) beer with neighbors in the evening. After a few hours spent drinking and talking, drums are brought out. Dancing and singing follow, usually until dawn. For the Jivaro, these parties provide a rare occasion for social interaction and communication in a society where there is almost no contact with people outside the family.
18 • CRAFTS AND HOBBIES
The Jivaro are skilled craftspeople. Women learn to make pottery from a very young age. The art of weaving is reserved exclusively for men. They spin, weave, and dye cotton wool with natural dyes extracted from tropical plants. Elaborate feather headdresses and artifacts are also widely sought for their artistic beauty. The skills to make these traditional items are still taught to successive generations. However, the growing availability of Western goods has diminished the quality of traditional goods.
19 • SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Modern society continues to challenge traditional culture. Like many native people, the Jivaro struggle to hang on to their traditional way of life as contemporary influences enter their world.
20 • BIBLIOGRAPHY
Descola, Philippe. Spears of Twilight: Three Years Among the Jivaro. New York: New Press, 1996.
Furneaux, Rupert. Primitive Peoples. London: David and Charles, 1975.
Harner, Michael J. The Jivaro: People of the Sacred Waterfalls. New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1973.
Weyer, Edward. Primitive Peoples Today. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1961.
Embassy of Ecuador, Washington, D.C. [Online] Available http://www.ecuador.org/, 1998.
Interknowledge Corp. Ecuador. [Online] Available http://www.interknowledge.com/ecuador/, 1998.
STAAC. Jivaro Indians. [Online] Available http://www.nzp.com/1201jivaro.html, 1995.
World Travel Guide. Ecuador. [Online] Available http://www.wtgonline.com/country/ec/gen.html, 1998.
"Jivaro." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jivaro
"Jivaro." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Retrieved June 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jivaro
ETHNONYMS: Aents, Chívari, Chiwaro, Gíbari, Givari, Gívaro, Híbaro, Jibaro, Jívara, Jívira, Macusari, Mainu, Shuar, Shuara, Síwaro, Xívari, Xívaro, Zíbaro
The 30,000 to 32,000 Jivaro live in the foothills of the Andes Mountains of Ecuador, particularly on the Zamora, Upano, and Paute rivers in Morona-Santiago Province (2° to 5° S, 77° to 79° W). There are four major subgroups: the Antipa, the Aguaruna, the Huambiza, and the Achuale. They speak a language belonging to the Jivaroan Family, but some speak Quechua in addition. When the Spanish first contacted them, the Jivaro were repelling the hostile advances of the Inca, who sought the gold in Jivaro territory. Later, the Jivaro fought off the Spanish, who also came to their territory looking for gold. A gold rush to the area in the 1930s caused the Jivaro to fight the new arrivals; the Roman Catholic Salesians, who had a mission among the Jivaro, were able to stop the war by persuading the Ecuadoran government to provide the Jivaro a reservation. Since then, relations between the Jivaro and Whites have been essentially peaceful, although the Jivaro cannot be considered completely pacified. The Jivaro are nowadays swidden horticulturists who produce sweet manioc, maize, and other crops. They have acquired a strong taste for trade goods, and many of them have entered the work force as laborers to earn the money necessary to buy such items.
Traditionally, the Jivaro raised sweet manioc, maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts, tuber beans, macabo (Xanthosoma sp.), pumpkins, plantains, tobacco, cotton, and, later, the introduced species of banana, sugarcane, taro, and yam. Planting and other horticultural rituals are very important. The Jivaro fish and forage for wild fruits, cacao, nuts, and other foods. They used to hunt deer and tapir, but in the middle of the twentieth century they gave up eating these animals out of fear of the spirits in them. Hunting is done with bows and arrows, spears, and atlatls. Larger game is hunted by groups of people accompanied by dogs; blowguns are used for small game. There is much magic associated with hunting, including the use of pepper in the eyes of hunters and dogs to improve vision. The Jivaro traditionally domesticated llamas and guinea pigs and later the introduced dog, chicken, and pig.
An entire Jivaro community of from 80 to 300 people (30 to 40 people in the twentieth century) lives in one house (jivaría ), which, for defensive purposes, is built on a steep hill at the upper end of a stream. The house itself is approximately 13 meters by 26 meters, elliptical in shape, and has a thatched roof. Men and women sleep at opposite ends.
Each community is politically independent and has its own headman. It is located 4 or more kilometers from its nearest neighboring community. The community is made up of people patrilineally and affinally related. In times of war, two or more villages may unite to fight a common enemy, as was the case when the Spanish attempted to conquer them.
There are rituals for both boys and girls upon reaching puberty. Men may marry their cross cousins and their sisters' daughters. Polygyny is common, and this would appear to be adaptive since so many men die in warfare. Levirate is obligatory. Men either pay a bride-price or perform bride-service. Deceased adults are buried in hollowed-out logs in special buildings and are given food and drink for two years, after which they are believed to transform into animals or birds. Children are interred in urns.
Gippelhauser, Richard (1990). Die Achuara-Jivaro: Wirtschaftliche und soziale Organisationsformen am peruanischen Amazonas. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.
Harner, Michael J. (1973). The Jívaro: People of the Sacred Waterfalls. New York: Doubleday.
Karsten, Rafael (1935). "The Head-Hunters of Western Amazonas: The Life and Culture of the Jibaro Indians of Easten Ecuador and Peru." Societas Scientiarum Fennica, Commentationes Humanarum, Litterarum (Helsinki) 8(1).
"Jivaro." Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jivaro-0
"Jivaro." Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Retrieved June 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jivaro-0
Jívaro (hē´värō), linguistic stock of Native South Americans in Ecuador. The peoples, N of the Marañón River and E of the Andes, engage in farming, hunting, fishing, and weaving. They have a patrilineal society, with some 15 to 20 people, the family group, living in each huge, isolated communal house. Though not unique to the Jívaro, head shrinking, accompanied by elaborate ceremony, made them famous, but the practice has virtually disappeared. The Jívaro long resisted government and missionary efforts to subdue them.
See V. W. Von Hagen, Off with Their Heads (1937); J. Hanzelka and M. Zikmund, Amazon Headhunters (tr. 1964); M. J. Harner, The Jívaro (1972).
"Jívaro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jivaro
"Jívaro." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jivaro
"Jivaro." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/jivaro
"Jivaro." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved June 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/jivaro