HIGHER LAW is that purported body of legal principles, partaking of the divine, that is eternally and universally valid in human society. As the Roman orator Cicero explained it, it is "right reason in agreement with nature … [it is] one eternal and unchangeable law … valid for all nations and all times, and [there is] …one master and ruler, that is, God, [who is] the author of this law, its promulgator, and its enforcing judge." Christian legal theorists, such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas, gave similar descriptions of this all-encompassing system. Under the rubric of "natural law," the jurist Sir William Blackstone recognized it as a part of the English common law in his famous Commentaries (1765–1769), which profoundly influenced American common law, and its expositors such as Joseph Story and James Kent. The nature of the American legal system, and whether it admits of higher law, or whether it simply consists of the temporal pronouncements of the American people and their legislatures, has been a much-mooted question throughout American history. In the late eighteenth century, higher-law notions were used to explain the presence of natural rights in America, and higher-law principles were said, by the abolitionists, to justify resistance to the provisions of the U.S. Constitution that permitted slavery. Higher-law notions fell into disrepute following their use in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, particularly through the doctrines of freedom of contract, to frustrate state and federal regulation of the economy. In the late twentieth century, pursuant to the doctrines of legal realism, which became ascendant in American legal education beginning in the 1960s, American constitutional and private law has generally been understood only to be the product of American legislators and judges. Still, when, in 1974, President Gerald Ford pardoned the disgraced former President Richard Nixon, he claimed that he did so on the basis of a "higher law" than the Constitution, and when the Supreme Court, under Chief Justice Earl Warren, rendered a series of decisions dramatically enhancing individual rights, the Court's critics and supporters recognized that the Court was turning to higher-law notions of fairness and justice to support its rulings. The higher-law notion of inalienable rights granted by a Creator was acknowledged in the Declaration of Independence, and in the late twentieth century, several scholars sought to demonstrate that the Constitution itself was created to secure those rights.
Corwin, Edward S. The "Higher Law" Background of American Constitutional Law. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, 1955.
Gerber, Scott Douglas. To Secure These Rights: The Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Interpretation. New York: New York University Press, 1995.
Sandoz, Ellis. A Government of Laws: Political Theory, Religion, and the American Founding. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1989.
See alsoCommon Law .
"Higher Law." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 15, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/higher-law
"Higher Law." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved December 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/higher-law
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.