jewish socialist workers' association.
The Bund (full name in Yiddish: Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeiter-Bund in Rusland und Poylen, translated as "General association of Jewish workers in Russia and Poland") was founded in Vilna (now Vilnius, Lithuania) in 1897. It was opposed to the emigration of Jews from Eastern Europe and asserted that the survival and development of Jewish life was dependent, instead, on Jews joining the struggle for social change and social justice in their respective countries of origin. It was staunchly opposed to Zionism as well as to the Zionist emphasis on Hebrew as the Jewish national language. It promoted the value of Yiddish. It was originally neutral on the notion of a collective Jewish national identity, but in 1901 it endorsed the ethnicity of Russia's Jews, and in October 1905 it adopted the notion Jewish cultural autonomy.
After the Bolshevik Revolution (1917), government repression led to the Bund's demise in the Soviet Union. The Bund continued to play an influential role in Poland until the Nazi invasion in 1939 and the beginning of World War II. After the war, the remnants of the Bund in Europe and the United States continued to oppose vigorously the establishment of a Jewish state.
see also zionism.
Jacobs, Jack. On Socialists and the Jewish Question After Marx. New York: New York University Press, 1993.
Jacobs, Jack, ed. Jewish Politics in Eastern Europe: The Bund at 100. New York: New York University Press, 2001.
Tobias, Henry J. The Jewish Bund in Russia: From Its Origins to 1905. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1972.
Chaim I. Waxman
"Bund." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bund
"Bund." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved October 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bund
"bund." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bund
"bund." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved October 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bund