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mandarin

mandarin an official in any of the senior grades of the former imperial Chinese civil service. Mandarins were chosen by examination, and there were nine grades, each of which was distinguished by the material from which the round ornament or ‘button’ on top of the official headgear was made. From the early 18th century, Mandarin has also been used for the standard literary and official form of Chinese.

Recorded in English in the late 16th century, the word comes from Portuguese mandarim, via Malay, from Hindi mantrī ‘counsellor’. The current transferred meaning of a powerful official or senior bureaucrat, especially one perceived as reactionary and secretive, developed in the early 20th century.

The mandarin orange may be named from the colour of the fruit being likened to the official yellow robes of a mandarin.

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"mandarin." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"mandarin." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/mandarin

"mandarin." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/mandarin

Mandarin

Mandarin (măn´dərĬn) [Port. mandar=to govern, or from Malay mantri=counselor of state], a high official of imperial China. For each of the nine grades there was a different colored button worn on the dress cap. Mandarin Chinese was the language spoken by the official class and was based on the Beijing dialect. A version of Mandarin Chinese, known as putonghua [common language], is now taught throughout the country, and it is the official national language. A first or second language for roughly half the nation's population, it is widely spoken in native Chinese regions except along the southeastern coast, where the Cantonese, Fukienese, and Shanghai languages (considered by some to be Chinese dialects) are dominant. See Chinese.

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"Mandarin." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mandarin

mandarin

mandarin1 Chinese official. XVI. — Pg. mandarin (after mandar command) — Malay mantĕriHindi mantrī :- Skr. mantrín- counsellor, f. mántra- counsel (rel. to MIND).

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"mandarin." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"mandarin." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/mandarin-2

mandarin

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"mandarin." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"mandarin." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved October 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/mandarin-0