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Tyre

Tyre (tīr), ancient city of Phoenicia, S of Sidon. It is the present-day Sur in Lebanon, a small town on a peninsula jutting into the Mediterranean from the mainland of Syria S of Beirut. It was built on an island just off the mainland, but the accumulation of sand around a mole built by Alexander the Great to facilitate his siege of the city (333–332 BC) has formed a causeway more than .5 mi (.8 km) wide. The date of the founding of the city is extremely uncertain, but by 1400 BC it was a flourishing city. The maritime supremacy of Tyre was established by 1100 BC, and by that date its seamen seem to have sailed around the Mediterranean and to have founded colonies in Spain, S Italy, and N Africa. Tyrians founded the city of Carthage in the 9th cent. BC Tyre was famous for its industries, such as textile manufactures, and particularly for the purple Tyrian dye. Throughout its long history Tyre frequently came under foreign rule. It was besieged by the Assyrians and the Chaldaeans and fell to the Persians. The city was sacked by Alexander the Great but recovered quickly. In 64 BC it became a part of the Roman Empire. In spite of competition offered by newer cities such as Alexandria, it prospered and was able to retain varying degrees of autonomy. Christianity was introduced early into Tyre, and a splendid cathedral, of which there are remains, was built in the 4th cent. After the rise of Islam, Tyre came under Muslim rule and later under that of the Crusaders. It was destroyed by the Muslims in 1291 and never recovered its former greatness. The principal ruins of the city today are those of buildings erected by the Crusaders. There are some Greco-Roman remains, but any left by the Phoenicians lie underneath the present town. Tyre is mentioned frequently in the Bible.

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"Tyre." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Tyre

TYRE

Historic coastal city in south Lebanon on the Mediterranean Sea.

Throughout its history, Tyre (now Sur), which is located fifty-two miles (83 km) from Beirut, has known several invasions and occupations. In the eighth century b.c.e., Tyre rebelled against the Assyrians, and in the sixth century b.c.e., the population of Tyre organized a revolt against the Chaldeans. In 333 b.c.e., following his defeat of the Persians, Alexander the Great was welcomed by all Phoenician cities with the exception of Tyre.

Tyre has also had a golden age (especially under the Romans) because of its flourishing glass and purple dye manufacturing. It was under the Romans that Christianity reached Tyre in the person of Saint Paul, who visited the city and stayed for ten days. In 638 c.e., Tyre fell under the control of the Fatimids, where it remained until 1124. In that year Tyre was besieged by the Crusaders and was incorporated in the kingdom of Jerusalem, as a part of which it grew prosperous. The city was recaptured and destroyed by the Mamluks in 1291.

Oranges, citrus, bananas, and sugar cane are the major fruits and vegetables produced in Tyre. Some of the inhabitants of the city and the surrounding region also make their living as fishermen. The old Phoenician city today has a large number of banks and financial institutions, several educational and humanitarian institutions, and hospitals and health centers to serve its population of 30,000 (1996). In a city that also has an active sport life, soccer clubs are especially popular.

george e. irani

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tyre

tyre Air-filled rubber and fabric cushion that fits over the wheels of vehicles to grip the road and absorb shock. The pneumatic tyre was invented in 1845, but was not commonly used until the end of the 19th century. It consists of a layer of fabric surrounded by a thick layer of rubber treated with chemicals to harden it and decrease wear and tear.

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Tyre

Tyre (Sur) Historic city on the coast of modern Lebanon. Built on an island, it was a major commercial port of ancient Phoenicia. It supplied both craftsmen and raw materials, especially cedarwood, for the building of the temple in Jerusalem in the 10th century bc. It established colonies, including Carthage, around the e Mediterranean. Tyre was never successfully besieged until Alexander the Great built a causeway linking the island to the mainland (332 bc). Ruled by successive empires, including the Romans, it was captured by the Arabs in ad 638 and destroyed by the Mamelukes in 1291. It never regained its former eminence. Pop. (2002 est) 114,800.

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Tyre

Tyre a port on the Mediterranean in southern Lebanon, founded in the 2nd millennium bc as a colony of Sidon, it was for centuries a Phoenician port and trading centre. Its prosperity did not decline until the 14th century.
Tyrian purple purple or crimson dye traditionally made at ancient Tyre.

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tyre

tyre, (now U.S.) tire3 †curved plating for the rim of a wheel XV; rim of metal forming a continuous hoop XVIII; cushion of rubber for the same purpose XIX. perh. a use of TIRE2.

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tyre

tyreacquire, admire, afire, applier, aspire, attire, ayah, backfire, barbwire, bemire, briar, buyer, byre, choir, conspire, crier, cryer, defier, denier, desire, dire, drier, dryer, dyer, enquire, entire, esquire, expire, fire, flyer, friar, fryer, Gaia, gyre, hellfire, hire, hiya, ire, Isaiah, jambalaya, Jeremiah, Josiah, Kintyre, latria, liar, lyre, Maia, Maya, Mayer, messiah, mire, misfire, Nehemiah, Obadiah, papaya, pariah, peripeteia, perspire, playa, Praia, prior, pyre, quire, replier, scryer, shire, shyer, sire, skyer, Sophia, spire, squire, supplier, Surabaya, suspire, tier, tire, transpire, trier, tumble-dryer, tyre, Uriah, via, wire, Zechariah, Zedekiah, Zephaniah •homebuyer

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