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Schist

Schist

Schist is a metamorphic rock consisting of mineral grains that are more or less aligned in layers. Because of this structure, schist tends to cleave into flakes or slabs.

The parent rock of a schist may be igneous (e.g., basalt, granite , syenite) or sedimentary (e.g., sandstone , mudstone, impure limestone ). The metamorphic grade of a schist depends on how thoroughly melted and recrystallized its parent rock has been; higher temperatures produce lower water content, coarser crystallization, more distinct layering, and reduced schistosity. At the high end of this scale, the schists blur into the gneisses.

The directional mineral structure of schists and gneisses arises during crystallization under anisotropic stress. Anisotropic stress is stress that does not point equally in all directions, such as would be produced by placing a block of any material on a table and leaning on it at an angle. During the formation of a schist or gneiss , the parent rock is heated sufficiently to mobilize its atoms. As it cools under anisotropic stress, its atoms assume the most stable, low-energy arrangements available to them: anisotropic crystals (plates or elongated shapes pointing in a common direction). Anisotropic crystal structure gives the schists their characteristic cleavage properties.

There are many varieties of schist. Two categories of particular importance are the greenschists and the blueschists. These have similar parent rocks but are formed under different pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions. What minerals will crystallize during metamorphosis depend on both P and T. Greenschists form under high P and high T such as are found far below Earth's crust ; blueschists form under high P and relatively low T. Both greenschists and blueschists are found in regionally metamorphosed landscapesthat is, land masses that have been submerged entirely in Earth's interior and metamorphosed in bulk. Regional metamorphosis often occurs at subduction zones, those places where one tectonic plate is being driven edgewise into the mantle beneath another. A large, cool chunk of Earth's crust takes a long time to reach ambient T when plunged into the mantle, but is raised to high P at once; a subducted mass that stays down long enough to achieve both high T and high P produces greenschist, while one that returns to the surface relatively quickly produces blueschist. One of the great unresolved puzzles of modern geology is that blueschist formation seems to have become globally more common in the last 300 million years, while greenschist formation has remained constant throughout Earth's history.

See also Metamorphism; Partial melting; Plate tectonics

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schist

schist (shĬst), metamorphic rock having a foliated, or plated, structure called schistosity in which the component flaky minerals are visible to the naked eye. Schists are distinguished from the other foliated rocks, slates and gneisses, by the size of their mineral crystals; these are larger than those of slates, being visible to the naked eye, but smaller than those of gneisses, which are coarsely foliated rocks as opposed to finely foliated, or schistose, rocks. As contrasted with the folia of slates, the folia of schists are rough-surfaced and irregular. Schists split readily along their planes of schistosity, like slates along cleavage lines. Like other foliated rocks, schists owe their origin to the metamorphism of preexisting rocks. The commonest of the schists is mica schist, the essential minerals of which are quartz and mica (biotite or muscovite). Other schists are hornblende schist, talc schist, chlorite schist, and graphite schists. Schists are abundant in the Precambrian (Archean and Proterozoic) rocks.

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schist

schist A regional metamorphic rock of pelitic (see PELITE) composition which displays a schistosity. Schists are coarsergrained than phyllites, having a grain size greater than 1 mm. The minerals defining the schistosity may be muscovite mica, biotite mica, and/or elongate quartz, depending on the composition and the pressure and temperature of formation. When a basic igneous rock is metamorphosed it forms a hornblende-schist (amphibolite) or greenschist if it contains a planar fabric, or a greenstone if no fabric is present. Thus in this latter context ‘schist’ refers to the fabric component and not to the overall rock type.

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schist

schist / shist/ • n. Geol. a coarse-grained metamorphic rock that consists of layers of different minerals and can be split into thin irregular plates. DERIVATIVES: schis·tous / -təs/ adj.

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schist

schist (geol.) fissile crystalline rock. XVIII. — F. schiste — L. schistos — Gr. skhistǒs, pp. adj. f. base of skhízein split.
Hence schistose XVIII.

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schist

schist Large group of metamorphic rocks that have been made cleavable, causing the rocks to split into thin plates leaving a wavy, uneven surface.

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schist

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