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hardpan

hardpan, condition of the soil or subsoil in which the soil grains become cemented together by such bonding agents as iron oxide and calcium carbonate, forming a hard, impervious mass. It is disadvantageous to farming, interfering with the circulation of moisture in the soil and with the growth of roots through the soil. When the condition is caused by the filling of the air spaces in the soil with fine particles of clay, the subsoil is called a clay pan. This usually occurs in acid soil.

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"hardpan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"hardpan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hardpan

"hardpan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hardpan

hardpan

hardpan A hardened soil horizon, usually found in the middle or lower parts of the profile, which may be indurated (see induration) or cemented by a variety of possible cementing materials. See also caliche; duricrust; and pan.

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"hardpan." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"hardpan." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hardpan-0

"hardpan." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hardpan-0

hardpan

hardpan A hardened soil horizon, usually found in the middle or lower parts of the profile, that may be indurated (see INDURATION) or cemented by a variety of possible cementing materials. See also CALICHE; DURICRUST; and PAN.

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"hardpan." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"hardpan." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hardpan-1

"hardpan." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hardpan-1

hardpan

hardpan Hardened soil horizon, usually found in the middle or lower parts of the profile, that may be indurated or cemented by a variety of possible cementing materials. See also CALICHE; DURICRUST; and PAN.

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"hardpan." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"hardpan." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hardpan

"hardpan." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hardpan