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paraphyletic

paraphyletic In systematics, describing a group of organisms that excludes one or more descendants of a particular single common ancestor. For example, the taxonomic group `reptiles' used in evolutionary systematics is paraphyletic because it excludes birds and mammals, which share the same common ancestor as the reptiles. In cladistics such groups are regarded as invalid when constructing classification schemes, since cladists allow only monophyletic groups, or clades, as a basis for taxonomic groupings. However, in evolutionary systematics paraphyletic groups, or evolutionary grades, are sometimes permitted in order to reflect biological similarities. Thus `reptiles' is used as a group because its members are closely related to each other and they share certain essential characteristics, such as ectothermy (`cold-bloodedness'), that differ markedly from their fellow clade members, the birds and mammals. Compare polyphyletic.

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"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/paraphyletic-3

"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Biology. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/paraphyletic-3

paraphyletic

paraphyletic Of a taxon, including some but not all descendants of the common ancestor (i.e. not holophyletic).

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"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/paraphyletic

"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/paraphyletic

paraphyletic

paraphyletic Of a taxon, including some but not all descendants of the common ancestor (i.e. not holophyletic).

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"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/paraphyletic-0

"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/paraphyletic-0

paraphyletic

paraphyletic Of a taxon, including some but not all descendants of the common ancestor (i.e. not holophyletic).

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"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/paraphyletic-2

"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/paraphyletic-2

paraphyletic

paraphyletic Of a taxon, including some but not all descendants of the common ancestor, i.e. not holophyletic.

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"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/paraphyletic-1

"paraphyletic." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/paraphyletic-1