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littoral fringe

littoral fringe The uppermost reaches of the littoral zone of marine ecosystems. On rocky shores it is the main area for Littorina species (periwinkles), and the black lichen, Verrucaria, and is distinguished from the lower, eulittoral zone by the absence of barnacles (e.g. Balanus species and Chthamalus species). On sandy shores crabs, beach amphipods, and some land insects are characteristic.

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"littoral fringe." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"littoral fringe." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/littoral-fringe

"littoral fringe." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/littoral-fringe

littoral fringe

littoral fringe The uppermost reaches of the littoral zone of marine ecosystems. On rocky shores it is the main area for Littorina species (periwinkles), and the black lichen, Verrucaria, and is distinguished from the lower, eulittoral zone by the absence of barnacles (e.g. Balanus species and Chthamalus species). On sandy shores crabs, beach amphipods, and some land insects are characteristic.

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"littoral fringe." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"littoral fringe." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/littoral-fringe-0

"littoral fringe." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/littoral-fringe-0