As co-owners and lead figures of the Minneapolis-based hip-hop label Rhymesayers Entertainment, the indie hip-hop group Atmosphere have formed a style that is uniquely Midwest and completely contrary to the MTV-friendly hip-hop of guns, bling, etc. With the duo of Slug on the microphone and producer Ant making the beats, Atmosphere has been courted by the major labels, but in alliance to their music and themselves, they have stayed on their own small but growing label. Slug's rhymes have often been emotional and personal, and Atmosphere has been written about more in indie rock magazines than in ones that cater to rap, which has little to do with the color of their skin. "Slug has a way of drawing out the universal in the intensely personal, and his gaze into the mirror reveals two faces: his and ours," wrote Christopher Bahn of The A.V. Club. Atmosphere has been labeled emo-rap, underground, or indie hip-hop, with its self-deprecating lyrics. Ten years into the group, Atmosphere has continued to break new musical ground with each release. "One can feel Atmosphere loosening modern hip-hop from its moorings and yanking it into some weirder and far more interesting place," wrote Rolling Stone's Pat Blashill, in a review of the group's 2003 album Seven's Travels.
Growing up in Minneapolis, Sean Daley was always a bit different from the other white kids in his neighborhood. When he was a teen, his parents (his father was African American and his mother was white) divorced, and Daley immersed himself in the graffiti culture of break dancing and hip-hop music. Daley started off break dancing, but discovered he was better at drawing and graffiti. He had to try his hand at everything, and after dancing and graffiti came spinning records. Emerging as a talented DJ, Daley dubbed himself Slug, and with his high school friends Stress (Siddiq Ali) and Spawn (Derek Turner), they formed The Rhyme Sayers Collective. Early live performances by the group had Slug on vinyl, making beats while Spawn MC'd. Slug and Spawn began working with other likeminded musicians who were making the kind of underground hip-hop that Midwesterners could relate to. One such peer was producer Ant (Anthony Davis). In 1998 Spawn and Slug rhymed on a record produced and made by Ant. They dubbed themselves Atmosphere and released their debut, Overcast!, on a label they co-owned, called Rhymesayers Entertainment.
Atmosphere began playing live shows around Minneapolis and the Midwest, and by 2000 Spawn had the group down to a duo. They started the Sad Clown EP series, and that year they released (now out of print) Sad Clown Dub II. A handful of singles and EPs were released as the band toured around the United States, and in 2001 they compiled 3 EPs and released them as one album. In 2001, in a distribution deal with Fat Beats, Atmosphere released Lucy Ford: The Atmosphere EPs on Rhymesayers. Village Voice writer Christian Hoard called Slug "the most openhearted MC in history." All of the songs from the EPs were written about Slug's ex-girlfriend and his broken relationship. "Lucy Ford served up an everyman persona equal parts lovelorn poet, peripatetic slacker, drunken bar regular, and class clown," wrote the Voice's Michaelangelo Matos.
Because Ant often did not tour with Atmosphere, and Slug was the front man, the rapper started getting more attention than the group, most of it based on his bare-boned emotional rhymes. In 2002 Atmosphere released their breakthrough album God Loves Ugly. The album, via distribution with Fat Beats, went on to sell more than 130,000 copies in the United States. Matos wrote that the album "feels like hip-hop: the brusque party cuts, the embattled puffed-up defensiveness, the slightly stagy sense that Slug's soul-baring tendencies have taken on now that he's gotten our attention without having to fight quite so hard for it."
Atmosphere, with a full live band, toured across the globe to promote God Loves Ugly. More than a handful of major labels tried to entice Atmosphere to join their rosters, but the group wanted to stay true to their roots, and continued to build their own Rhymesayers community. As for the title of the record, God Loves Ugly, Slug felt it was up for each listener's interpretations. "To me, it was just a basic, broad statement," he told Synthesis writer Max Sidman.
Rhymesayers signed a new distribution deal with punk label Epitaph for their 2003 release Seven's Travels. The record was hailed in popular music magazines and newspapers as heralding Atmosphere's distinctive style, and it sold more than 150,000 copies in the United States. Blashill wrote that the group made "overeducated nerd rap: self loathing, navel-gazing and occasionally hilarious," and added that "the grooves are dusty and tasteful, and Slug's words are those of a smart guy who's tired of being nice." Ant's production of jazzy and old R&B samples didn't go unnoticed either. "His dusty grooves are hooky and R&B-informed, and even when they back up Slug's most manically depressed rhymes, they never feel heavy handed," wrote Hoard, of Ant's contribution.
Front man Slug gained a lot of attention for using rhymes that seemed heartbreakingly autobiographical. Like most songwriters, though, Slug wanted listeners to know that not everything was a personal diary entry, and that his lyrics were up for personal interpretation. Slug admitted to The A.V. Club, "I grew up on Slick Rick, who could tell any story he wanted, and you never stopped and wondered if that really happened. And rap has turned into such a literal thing. … Kids actually think that rappers do these things. It's like, I got news for you, Lloyd Banks has never shot anybody, and I've never done heroin. But at the same time, I'm not going to change my technique because I'm worried about whether people are interpreting it right or wrong."
In 2005 Atmosphere issued You Can't Imagine How Much Fun We're Having, which debuted at number one on the Billboard Indie Chart with 19,000 copies sold in its first week. Performances on Late Night With Conan O'Brien and Jimmy Kimmel Live widened the group's audience to thousands of urban and suburban teens. Throughout You Can't Imagine, Slug raps about politics, murders, rage, and personal problems. "This all could have been a drag in the hands of a rapper with less self-awareness or sense of humor, or without access to the deft production skills of Atmosphere beatmaster Ant," wrote Christopher Bahn in The A.V. Club.
The Sad Clown series that the group began several years back kept Atmosphere busy. In July of 2007 it was Sad Clown Bad Summer, in November, it was Sad Clown Bad Fall. In December of that year, via free download on their Web site only, Atmosphere put up a new record aptly titled Strictly Leakage. In April of 2008, Atmosphere released the much-anticipated album When Life Gives You Lemons, You Paint That S--t Gold. The group embarked on a tour with their backup band that included Erick Anderson (keyboards), Nate Collins (guitar), Brett Johnson (bass), and Brian McLeod (drums).
For the Record …
Members include Sean Daley (a.k.a. Slug ), vocals; Anthony Davis (a.k.a. Ant ), producer. Former members include Derek Turner (a.k.a. Spawn ), vocals.
Group formed in Minneapolis, MN, c. 1998; became co-owners of record label Rhymesayers Entertainment; released debut album Outcast!, 1999; released Lucy Ford: The Atmosphere EPs, 2001; God Loves Ugly, 2002; Seven's Travels, 2003; You Can't Imagine How Much Fun We're Having, 2005; When Life Gives You Lemon, You Paint That S--t Gold, 2008.
Addresses: Record company—Rhymesayers Entertainment, 2411 Hennepin Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN 55404, Web site: http://www.rhymesayers.com. Publicist—Biz 3 Publicist, 1321 N. Milwaukee Ave., #452, Chicago, IL 60622.
Overcast!, Rhymesayers, 1998.
Lucy Ford: The Atmosphere EP's, Rhymesayers, 2001.
God Loves Ugly, Rhymesayers, 2002.
Seven's Travels, Rhymesayers, 2003.
You Can't Imagine How Much Fun We're Having, Rhymesayers, 2005.
When Life Gives You Lemons, You Paint That S--t Gold, Rhymesayers, 2008.
Village Voice, June 26, 2002; November 3, 2004.
"Atmosphere: Seven's Travels," Rolling Stone,http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/atmosphere2/albums/album/300124/review/5943244/sevens_travels (February 10, 2008).
"Atmosphere: You Can't Imagine How Much Fun We're Having," The A.V. Club,http://www.avclub.com/content/node/41761 (February 10, 2008).
"The Fifth Element of Hip-Hop," Synthesis,http://www.synthesis.net/music/interview/item-2368/2002-09-17-the_fifth_element_of_hip-hop (February 10, 2008).
Rhymesayers Entertainment Official Web site, http://www.rhymesayers.com (February 10, 2008).
"Slug," The A.V. Club,http://www.avclub.com/content/node/57340 (February 10, 2008).
"Atmosphere." Contemporary Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/atmosphere
"Atmosphere." Contemporary Musicians. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/atmosphere
The earth's atmosphere is simple in some respects, and complex in others. It is relatively uniform in composition with respect to its major mass components (oxygen and nitrogen), yet extremely variable in some minor components, such as water vapor and ozone (O3), which play major roles in its heat and radiation fluctuations. The atmosphere has a complex structure based on temperature gradients. This structure governs its mixing characteristics and the buildup of contaminants, yet is usually invisible, except when light-scattering particles suspended in the air make it visible. The structure of the atmosphere is of major importance to the dilution and dispersion of contaminants. It is governed by the lapse rate, which is the rate of change of air temperature with height above the ground.
The lowest of the atmospheric layers is the troposphere, which contains about 75 percent of the mass of the atmosphere, and almost all of its moisture. It extends to a height that varies from about 9 kilometers at the poles to about 15 kilometers at the equator, and it has an average lapse rate of about −6.5°C/km. The boundary between the troposphere and the next layer, the stratosphere, is known as the tropopause. The stratosphere contains essentially all of the remainder of the mass of the atmosphere; it is nearly isothermal (the temperature does not change with altitude) in the lower regions and shows a temperature increase with height in the upper regions. There is very little air exchange between the well-mixed and turbulent troposphere and the nearly stagnant stratosphere.
The major constituents of dry air at ground level are nitrogen (N2) at 78.1 percent by volume, oxygen (O2) at 21.0 percent, and argon (Ar) at 0.9 percent. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is present at about 330 ppm by volume and methane (CH4) at about1.5 ppm by volume. About 3 percent of the total mass of the lower atmosphere is water vapor (H2O), but the concentration is extremely variable in both space and time. In general, the warmer portions of the atmosphere contain more water vapor. The water vapor content becomes lower with increasing altitude and with increasing latitude. Water vapor plays a critical role in governing the earth's heat exchange and the motion of the atmosphere, due to its high heat capacity, absorption of infrared radiation, and heat of vaporization. Further effects attributable to atmospheric water result when air motion creates clouds (aerosols of water droplets), in which the energy received as sunshine in one place is liberated as the latent heat of vaporization in another.
Of the incoming radiant energy, about 30 to 50 percent is scattered back toward space, reflected primarily by clouds and, to some extent, by solid particles or by the earth's surface. About 20 percent of the incident radiant energy is absorbed as it passes through the atmosphere. Stratospheric O3 absorbs about 1 to 3 percent, primarily in the short-wave ultraviolet (UV) portion of the spectrum; this effectively limits further penetration to those wavelengths greater than 0.3 microns. In the troposphere, 17 to 19 percent of the incoming radiation is absorbed, due primarily to water vapor and secondarily to CO2.
The average radiation into space essentially equals that absorbed from the sun, and a substantial amount of energy must flow from the tropics toward the poles within the oceans and the troposphere. This flow of energy is accomplished primarily by systems of warm air and ocean currents that flow toward the poles and cool currents that flow toward the tropics.
The dispersion of contaminants within the atmosphere is generally referred to as diffusion. For practical purposes, the dispersion of contaminants by molecular diffusion is negligible because the extent of movements are generally infinitesimal compared to the movements of the air volumes containing them by the turbulent motions of the air (turbulent diffusion).
Atmospheric turbulence is a complicated phenomenon that has defied mathematical description. When considering contaminant dispersion, contaminant sources can be divided into three different categories: (1) point sources, such as tall industrial smokestacks; (2) line sources, such as highways; and (3) area sources, such as whole urban regions. The simplest is an elevated point source. The light-scattering properties of the aerosol in the plume from such a stack, consisting of fly ash and condensed water, enable us to observe plume dispersion with the unaided eye.
The vertical mixing of air is dependent upon the temperature profile of the atmosphere (the lapse rate). The immediate ground level concentrations of air contaminants may be reduced by vertical mixing, since dispersal into higher regions dilutes the contaminants. Poor vertical mixing may allow concentrations released at low altitudes to remain there in relatively concentrated form. An extreme case of atmospheric stability occurs when the atmospheric lapse rate is negative (when the temperature increases with altitude). This condition is known as a temperature inversion. There is virtually no vertical air movement within inversion layers and contaminants accumulate within them.
(see also: Airborne Particles; Ambient Air Quality [Air Pollution]; Climate Change and Human Health )
"Atmosphere." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/atmosphere
"Atmosphere." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/atmosphere
atmosphere [Gr.,=sphere of air], the mixture of gases surrounding a celestial body with sufficient gravity to maintain it. Although some details about the atmospheres of other planets and satellites are known, only the earth's atmosphere has been well studied, the science of which is called meteorology.
Components and Characteristics of the Earth's Atmosphere
The first 40 to 50 mi (64–80 km) above the earth contains 99% of the total mass of the earth's atmosphere and is generally of a uniform composition, except for a high concentration of ozone, known as the ozone layer, at 12–30 mi (19–50 km). Calculated according to their relative volumes, the gaseous constituents of the atmosphere are nitrogen, 78.09%; oxygen, 20.95%; argon, 0.93%; carbon dioxide, 0.03%; and minute traces of neon, helium, methane, krypton, hydrogen, xenon, and ozone. The lower atmosphere contains varying amounts of water vapor, which determine its humidity. Condensation and sublimation within the atmosphere cause clouds or fog, and the resulting liquid water droplets or ice crystals may precipitate to the ground as rain, sleet, snow, hail, dew, or frost. The air also carries many kinds of dust, of meteoric as well as terrestrial origin, and microorganisms, pollen, salt particles, and various gaseous and solid impurities resulting from human activity (see pollution). Because of the pull of gravity the density of the atmosphere and the pressure exerted by air molecules are greatest near the earth's surface (about 1 gram per 103 cc and about 106 dynes per sq cm, respectively). The instrument used to measure air pressure is called a barometer. Air pressure decreases quickly with altitude, reaching one half of its sea-level value at about 18,000 ft (5,500 m).
Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere
The earth's atmosphere is composed of distinct layers. The troposphere extends upward from the earth to a height of about 5 mi (8.1 km) at the poles, to about 7 mi (11.3 km) in mid-latitudes, and to about 10 mi (16.1 km) at the equator. The air in the troposphere is in constant motion, with both horizontal and vertical air currents (see wind). Throughout the troposphere temperature decreases with altitude at an average rate of about 3.6°F per 1,000 ft (2°C per 305 m), reaching about -70°F (-57°C) at its apex, the tropopause. Above the troposphere is an atmospheric ozone layer, which is also the lower layer of the stratosphere. Temperature changes little with altitude in the stratosphere, which extends upward to about 30 mi (50 km). Above this layer is the mesosphere which extends to about 50 mi (80 km above the earth); the temperature sharply decreases from around 20°F (10°C) at the base of the mesosphere to -166°F (-110°C) before it begins to rise at the top of the mesosphere. The next layer is the thermosphere, which extends upward from the mesosphere to about 400 mi (640 km); its temperature increases rapidly with altitude because of the absorption of shortwave radiation by ionization processes, although, because of the thinness of the air, little heat energy is available. The final layer is the exosphere, which gradually gets thinner as it reaches into the vacuum of space at around 435 mi (700 km) above the earth's surface; the atmosphere is so attenuated at this altitude that the average distance air molecules travel without colliding is equal to the radius of the earth. Although some gas molecules and particles out to about 40,000 mi (64,400 km) are trapped by the earth's gravitational and magnetic fields, the density of the atmosphere at an altitude of about 6,000 mi (9,700 km) is comparable to that of interplanetary space.
Certain layers of the atmosphere within the main regions exhibit characteristic properties. Aurorae (see aurora borealis), or northern and southern lights, appear in the thermosphere. The ionosphere is in the range (50–400 mi/80–640 km) that contains a high concentration of electrically charged particles (ions); these particles are responsible for reflecting radio signals important to telecommunications.
Role of the Earth's Atmosphere
The earth's atmosphere is the environment for most of its biological activity and exerts a considerable influence on the ocean and lake environment (see biosphere). Weather consists of the day-to-day fluctuations of environmental variables and includes the motion of wind and formation of weather systems such as hurricanes. Climate is the normal or long-term average state of the atmospheric environment (as determined in spans of about 50 years). The atmosphere protects earth's life forms from harmful radiation and cosmic debris. The ozone layer also protects the earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays; seasonal "holes" in the ozone layer, the first detected above Antarctica and the Arctic in the 1980s, have caused considerable alarm about the consequences of air pollution. Meteors strike the thermosphere and mesosphere and burn from the heat generated by air friction.
See also Van Allen radiation belts; global warming.
See O. Allen, Atmosphere, (1983); M. I. Budyko and A. B. Ronov, History of the Earth's Atmosphere, (1987).
"atmosphere." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/atmosphere
"atmosphere." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/atmosphere
See also 85. CLIMATE ; 87. CLOUDS ; 142. ENVIRONMENT ; 417. WEATHER ; 420. WIND .
- the horizontal movement of elements of the atmosphere. Cf. convection . —advective, adj.
- the branch of dynamics that studies the motions of air and other gases, especially with regard to bodies in motion in these substances. See also 31. AVIATION . —aerodynamic, aerodynamical, adj.
- aerographics, aerography
- the branch of meteorology that studies and describes atmospheric conditions. —aerographer, n. —aerographic, aerographical, adj.
- 1. Obsolete, the branch of meteorology that observed the atmosphere by using balloons, airplanes, etc.
- 2. meteorology. —aerologist, n. —aerologic, aerological, adj.
- 1. divination from the state of the air or atmospheric conditions, sometimes limited to weather.
- 2. Humorous. weather forecasting. See also 124. DIVINATION.
- the science of measuring properties of air; pneumatics. —aerometric, adj.
- the region in the upper part of the earth’s atmosphere where the air is too thin for aircraft to operate properly.
- an abnormal dread of fresh air. —aerophobe, n.
- aeroscepsy, aeroscepsis
- perception by means of the air, said to be a function of the antennae of insects.
- Aeronautics. the area outside the atmosphere of the earth where manned flight is possible.
- the separation of gases which are equally diffusible. —atmolyzer, n.
- 1. the sound, usually a crackling noise, heard over a radio receiver and caused by electromagnetic disturbances in the atmosphere; static.
- 2. the natural phenomena that create this disturbance.
- a barometer which automatically records, on a rotating cylinder, any variation in atmospheric pressure; a self-recording aneroid.
- the branch of science that deals with the barometer.
- the art or science of barometric observation.
- a branch of biology that studies the relationship between living creatures and atmospheric conditions. Also called biometeorology . —bioclimatologist, bioclimatician , n. —bioclimatological, adj.
- a form of divination involving aerial visions.
- the vertical movement of elements of the atmosphere. Cf. advection .
- an instrument for measuring the amount of oxygen in the air and for analyzing gases.
- the highest portion of the earth’s atmosphere, from which air molecules can escape into space. Cf. ionosphere .
- the outermost part of the earth’s permanent atmosphere, beyond the stratosphere, composed of heavily ionized molecules. It extends from about 50 to 250 miles above the surface of the earth. Cf. exosphere .
- an instrument for measuring impurities in the air. —konimetric, adj.
- the measurement of impurities in the air by means of a konimeter. —konimetric, adj.
- koniology, coniology
- the study of atmospheric dust and other impurities in the air, as germs, pollen, etc., especially regarding their effect on plant and animal life.
- the study of fogs and smogs, especially those affecting air pollution levels.
- a barograph for recording small fluctuations of atmospheric pressure.
- the determination of the proportion of ozone in the atmosphere. —ozonometer, n. —ozonometric, adj.
- a specialty in physics that studies the mechanical properties of air and other gases. Also called pneumodynamics .
- the upper part of the earth’s atmosphere, characterized by an almost constant temperature throughout its altitude, which begins at about seven miles and continues to the ionosphere, at about 50 miles.
- sympiesometer, sympiezometer
- an instrument for measuring the weight of the atmosphere by the compression of a column of gas. See also 226. INSTRUMENTS .
- the zone between the troposphere and the stratosphere where the temperature remains relatively constant above a given point on earth.
- the region of the earth’s atmosphere between the surface of the earth and the stratosphere.
- an instrument used for comparing barometers at varying pressures against a standard barometer.
"Atmosphere." -Ologies and -Isms. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere
"Atmosphere." -Ologies and -Isms. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere
"atmosphere." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/atmosphere-0
"atmosphere." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/atmosphere-0
1. The air surrounding the Earth. The atmosphere has no precise upper limit, but for all practical purposes the absolute top can be regarded as being at about 200 km. The density of the atmosphere decreases rapidly with height, and about three-quarters of the mass of the atmosphere is contained within the lowest major layer, the troposphere, whose depth varies between about 10 km and 17 km, being generally smaller further from the equator.
2. A unit of pressure (abbreviation: atm.). Its value is approximately the average pressure of the atmosphere at sea level, the figure adopted being the pressure at sea level in the International Standard Atmosphere (760 mm of mercury, or 1013.25 mb). In SI units, 1 atm = 101 325 Pa. See also atmospheric structure.
"atmosphere." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere-0
"atmosphere." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere-0
at·mos·phere / ˈatməsˌfi(ə)r/ • n. [usu. in sing.] 1. the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet. ∎ the air in any particular place: the dusty atmosphere of his apartment. ∎ (abbr.: atm) Physics a unit of pressure equal to mean atmospheric pressure at sea level, 101,325 pascals. 2. the pervading tone or mood of a place, situation, or work of art: the hotel is famous for its friendly, welcoming atmosphere. ∎ a pleasurable and interesting or exciting mood: a superb restaurant, full of atmosphere. ORIGIN: mid 17th cent.: from modern Latin atmosphaera, from Greek atmos ‘vapor’ + sphaira ‘ball, globe.’
"atmosphere." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere-0
"atmosphere." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere-0
1. Air surrounding the Earth. The atmosphere has no precise upper limit, but for all practical purposes the absolute top can be regarded as being at about 200 km. The density of the atmosphere decreases rapidly with height, and about three-quarters of the mass of the atmosphere is contained within the lowest major layer, the troposphere, whose depth varies between about 10 km and 17 km, being generally smaller further from the equator.
2. Unit of pressure (abbreviation: atm.). Its value is approximately the average pressure of the atmosphere at sea level, the figure adopted being the pressure at sea level in the International Standard Atmosphere (760 mm of mercury, or 1013.25 mb). In SI units, 1 atm. = 101 325 Pa. See also ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE.
"atmosphere." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere
"atmosphere." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere
Hence atmospheric XVIII, atmospherical XVII.
"atmosphere." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere-1
"atmosphere." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere-1
"atmosphere." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere
"atmosphere." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/atmosphere